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Myanmar

Efficacy and Safety of Pyronaridine-Artesunate for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Myanmar

June 15, 2020 - 15:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Han KT, Lin K, Han ZY, Myint MK, Aye KH, Thi A, Thapa B, Bustos MD, Borghini-Fuhrer I, Ringwald P, Duparc S
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jun 8

Four single-arm, prospective, clinical studies of pyronaridine–artesunate efficacy in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria were conducted in Myanmar between 2017 and 2019. Eligible subjects were aged at least 6 years, with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum (n = 196) or P. vivax mono-infection (n = 206). Patients received pyronaridine–artesunate once daily for 3 days with follow-up until day 42 for P. falciparum or day 28 for P. vivax.

Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface protein-3 in Myanmar Plasmodium falciparum field isolates

May 20, 2020 - 10:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hương Giang Lê, Thị Lam Thái, Byoung-Kuk Na, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:184, 19 May 2020

Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-3 (PfMSP-3) is a target of naturally acquired immunity against P. falciparum infection and is a promising vaccine candidate because of its critical role in the erythrocyte invasion of the parasite. Understanding the genetic diversity of pfmsp-3 is important for recognizing genetic nature and evolutionary aspect of the gene in the natural P. falciparum population and for designing an effective vaccine based on the antigen.

Screening for malaria antigen and anti-malarial IgG antibody in forcibly-displaced Myanmar nationals: Cox’s Bazar district, Bangladesh, 2018

March 31, 2020 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Austin Lu, Olivia Cote, Eric Rogier, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:130, 30 March 2020

Several refugee settlements in Bangladesh have provided housing and medical care for the forcibly-displaced Myanmar nationals (FDMN, also known as Rohingya) population. The identification of malaria infection status in the refugee settlements is useful in treating infected persons and in developing malaria prevention recommendations. Assays for Plasmodium antigens and human IgG against Plasmodium parasites can be used as indicators to determine malaria infection status and exposure.

Epidemiology of malaria and chloroquine resistance in Mizoram, northeastern India, a malaria-endemic region bordering Myanmar

March 3, 2020 - 12:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rita Zomuanpuii, Christopher L. Hmar, Khawlhring Lallawmzuala, Lal Hlimpuia, Praveen Balabaskaran Nina and Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:95, 27 February 2020

Mizoram, a northeastern state in India, shares international borders with Myanmar and Bangladesh and is considered to be one of the key routes through which drug-resistant parasites of Southeast Asia enter mainland India. Despite its strategic location and importance, malaria epidemiology and molecular status of chloroquine resistance had not been well documented, and since chloroquine (CQ), as the first-line treatment in Plasmodium falciparum infection was discontinued since 2008, it was expected that CQ-sensitive haplotype would be more abundant.

NOT open Access | Associations among Soil-Transmitted Helminths, G6PD Deficiency and Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia, and Anemia in Schoolchildren from a Conflict Zone of Northeast Myanmar

February 25, 2020 - 13:57 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zeng W, Malla P, Xu X, Pi L, Zhao L, He X, He Y, Menezes LJ, Cui L, Yang Z
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Feb 10


In tropical areas of developing countries, the interactions among parasitic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and malaria, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd), are complex. Here, we investigated their interactions and impact on anemia in school students residing in a conflict zone of northeast Myanmar. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and December 2015 in two schools located along the China–Myanmar border.

Challenges in early phase of implementing the 1-3-7 surveillance and response approach in malaria elimination setting: A field study from Myanmar

February 14, 2020 - 16:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Aung PP, Thein ZW, Hein ZNM, Aung KT, Mon NO, Linn NYY, Thi A, Wai KT, Maung TM
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Feb 10;9(1):18

The National Plan for Malaria Elimination (NPME) in Myanmar (2016–2030) aims to eliminate indigenous Plasmodium falciparum malaria in six states/regions of low endemicity by 2020 and countrywide by 2030. To achieve this goal, in 2016 the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) implemented the “1-3-7” surveillance and response strategy. This study aims to identify the barriers to successful implementation of the NPME which emerged during the early phase of the “1-3-7” approach deployment.

Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenases in Myanmar isolates

February 10, 2020 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jinyoung Lee, Tae Im Kim, Byoung-Kuk Na, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:60, 4 February 2020

Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is a major target in diagnosing the erythrocytic stage of malaria parasites because it is highly expressed during blood-stage parasites and is distinguished from human LDH. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria use pLDH as a target antigen; however, genetic variations in pLDH within the natural population threaten the efficacy of pLDH-based RDTs.

Malaria hot spot along the foothills of Rakhine state, Myanmar: geospatial distribution of malaria cases in townships targeted for malaria elimination

January 14, 2020 - 16:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Khine SK, Kyaw NTT, Thekkur P, Lin Z, Thi A
Reference: 
Tropical Medicine and Health, 2019 Dec 18; 47:60

Myanmar has targeted elimination of malaria by 2030. In three targeted townships of Rakhine state of Myanmar, a project is being piloted to eliminate malaria by 2025. The comprehensive case investigation (CCI) and geotagging of cases by health workers is a core activity under the project. However, the CCI data is not analyzed for obtaining information on geospatial distribution of cases and timeliness of diagnosis. In this regard, we aimed to depict geospatial distribution and assess the proportion with delayed diagnosis among diagnosed malaria cases residing in three targeted townships during April 2018 to March 2019.

Utilization of insecticide-treated bed nets and care-seeking for fever and its associated socio-demographic and geographical factors among under-five children in different regions: evidence from the Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 2015–2016

January 7, 2020 - 15:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kyi Thar Min, Thae Maung Maung, Myo Minn Oo, Tin Oo, Zaw Lin, Aung Thi and Jaya Prasad Tripathy
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:7, 6 January 2020

Malaria is one of the top-five contributors to under-5 deaths in Myanmar. Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and receiving early appropriate care in case of fever are the core interventions to prevent malaria and its complications and thereby deaths. This study aimed to assess among the under-five children, (a) utilization of ITNs and its associated factors, (b) care-seeking behaviour among their caregivers and its associated factors and uptake of malaria testing among those with fever in the last 2 weeks.

The probability of a sequential Plasmodium vivax infection following asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections in Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos

January 6, 2020 - 16:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lorenz von Seidlein, Pimnara Peerawaranun, Arjen M. Dondorp, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:449, 30 December 2019

Adding 8-aminoquinoline to the treatment of falciparum, in addition to vivax malaria, in locations where infections with both species are prevalent could prevent vivax reactivation. The potential risk of haemolysis under a universal radical cure policy using 8-aminoquinoline needs to be weighed against the benefit of preventing repeated vivax episodes. Estimating the frequency of sequential Plasmodium vivax infections following either falciparum or vivax malaria episodes is needed for such an assessment.

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