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Myanmar

A mobile phone application for malaria case-based reporting to advance malaria surveillance in Myanmar: a mixed methods evaluation

March 30, 2021 - 13:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Win Han Oo, Win Htike, Freya J. I. Fowkes, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:167, 26 March 2021

To achieve malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion, including Myanmar, it is necessary to ensure all malaria cases are detected, treated, and reported in a timely manner. Mobile phone-based applications for malaria reporting, case management, and surveillance implemented at a community-level may overcome reporting limitations associated with current paper-based reporting (PBR), but their effectiveness in this context is unknown.

NOT Open Access | In Vitro Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from the China-Myanmar Border Area to Piperaquine and Association with Candidate Markers

March 13, 2021 - 16:31 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Si Y, Zeng W, Cui L, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Mar 8:AAC.02305-20

Plasmodium falciparum from the Greater Mekong subregion has evolved resistance to the artemisinin-based combination therapy dihydroartemisinin and the partner drug piperaquine. To monitor the potential westward spread or independent evolution of piperaquine resistance, we evaluated the in vitro susceptibility of 120 P. falciparum isolates collected at the China-Myanmar border during 2007-2016.

Optimizing Myanmar’s community-delivered malaria volunteer model: a qualitative study of stakeholders’ perspectives

February 10, 2021 - 09:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Win Han Oo, Elizabeth Hoban, Lisa Gold, Kyu Kyu Than, Thazin La, Aung Thi and Freya J. I. Fowkes
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:79, 8 February 2021

In parallel with the change of malaria policy from control to elimination and declines in the malaria burden in Greater Mekong Sub-region, the motivation and social role of malaria volunteers has declined. To address this public health problem, in Myanmar, the role and responsibilities of malaria volunteers have been transformed into integrated community malaria volunteers (ICMV), that includes the integration of activities for five additional diseases (dengue, lymphatic filariasis, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and leprosy) into their current activities. However, this transformation was not evidence-based and did not consider inputs of different stakeholders. Therefore, qualitative stakeholder consultations were performed to optimize future malaria volunteer models in Myanmar.

Electrocardiographic effects of four antimalarials for pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria on the Thailand-Myanmar border: a randomised controlled trial

January 27, 2021 - 10:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Saito M, Yotyingaphiram W, Cargill Z, Gilder ME, Min AM, Phyo AP, San TD, Poe H, Chu C, White NJ, Nosten F, McGready R
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Jan 25:AAC.02473-20

Quinoline antimalarials cause drug-induced electrocardiograph QT prolongation, a potential risk factor for torsade de pointes. The effects of currently used antimalarials on the electrocardiogram were assessed in pregnant women with malaria. Pregnant women with microscopy-confirmed parasitaemia of any malaria species were enrolled in an open-label randomised controlled trial on the Thailand-Myanmar border in 2010-2016. Patients were randomised to the standard regimen dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ), or an extended regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (AL+). Recurrent vivax infections were treated with chloroquine. Standard 12-lead electrocardiograms were assessed on day 0, 4-6 hour following the last dose and day 7.

Predictors of malaria rapid diagnostic test positivity in a high burden area of Paletwa Township, Chin State in Western Myanmar

January 13, 2021 - 11:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Aung PL, Soe MT, Oo TL, Khin A, Thi A, Zhao Y, Cao Y, Cui L, Kyaw MP, Parker DM.
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 Jan 11;10(1):6

Despite major reductions in malaria burden across Myanmar, clusters of the disease continue to persist in specific subregions. This study aimed to assess the predictors of test positivity among people living in Paletwa Township of Chin State, an area of persistently high malaria burden.

Community demand for comprehensive primary health care from malaria volunteers in South-East Myanmar: a qualitative study

January 9, 2021 - 13:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Win Han Oo, Elizabeth Hoban, Lisa Gold, Kyu Kyu Than, Thazin La, Aung Thi and Freya J. I. Fowkes
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:19, 6 January 2021

Malaria volunteers have contributed significantly to malaria control achieving a reduction of annual parasite incidence to pre-elimination levels in several townships across Myanmar. However, the volunteers’ role is changing as Myanmar transitions from a malaria control to elimination programme and towards the goal of universal health coverage. The aim of the study is to explore the perspectives of community leaders, members and malaria volunteers in South-East Myanmar on community-delivered models to inform an optimal design that targets malaria elimination in the context of primary health care in Myanmar.

From control to elimination: a spatial-temporal analysis of malaria along the China-Myanmar border

November 25, 2020 - 12:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Huang F, Zhang L, Xue JB, Zhou HN, Thi A, Zhang J, Zhou SS, Xia ZG, Zhou XN
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Nov 19;9(1):158

Malaria cases have declined significantly along the China-Myanmar border in the past 10 years and this region is going through a process from control to elimination. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of malaria along the border, will identify challenges in the progress from control to elimination.

Genetic polymorphism of vir genes of Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar

November 4, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Na BK, Kim TS, Lin K, Baek MC, Chung DI, Hong Y, Goo YK
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2020 Oct 31:102233

The Plasmodium vivax variant proteins encoded by vir genes are highly polymorphic antigens and are considered as one of key proteins of P. vivax for host immune evasion via antigenic variations. Because genetic diversity of these antigens is a critical hurdle in the development of an effective vaccine, understanding the genetic nature of the vir genes in natural population is important.

Genetic variations in histidine-rich protein 2 and histidine-rich protein 3 of Myanmar Plasmodium falciparum isolates

November 4, 2020 - 10:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hương Giang Lê, Jung-Mi Kang, Jinyoung Lee, Won Gi Yoo, Moe Kyaw Myint, Khin Lin, Tong-Soo Kim and Byoung-Kuk Na
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:388, 2 November 2020

Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are precious tools to diagnose malaria. Most RDTs used currently are based on the detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) in a patient’s blood. However, concern has been raised in recent years that deletion of pfhrp2 in the parasite could affect the accuracy of PfHRP2-based RDTs. In addition, genetic variation in pfhrp2 might influence the accuracy and sensitivity of RDTs. In this study, the genetic variation in pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 in Myanmar P. falciparum isolates was analysed.

Impact of outdoor residual spraying on the biting rate of malaria vectors: A pilot study in four villages in Kayin state, Myanmar

November 3, 2020 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chaumeau V, Kajeechiwa L, Nosten F, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Oct 29;15(10):e0240598

Outdoor and early mosquito biters challenge the efficacy of bed-nets and indoor residual spraying on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Outdoor residual spraying is proposed for the control of exophilic mosquito species. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of outdoor residual spraying on the biting rate of malaria vectors in Kayin state, Myanmar. Outdoor residual spraying using lambda-cyhalothrin was carried out in two villages in December 2016 (beginning of the dry season) and two villages were used as a control.

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