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Myanmar

Genetic polymorphism and natural selection of circumsporozoite protein in Myanmar Plasmodium vivax

September 8, 2020 - 11:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tuấn Cường Võ, Hương Giang Lê, Jung-Mi Kang, Mya Moe, Haung Naw, Moe Kyaw Myint, Jinyoung Lee, Woon-Mok Sohn, Tong-Soo Kim and Byoung-Kuk Na
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:303, 4 September 2020

Circumsporozoite surface protein (CSP) of malaria parasites has been recognized as one of the leading vaccine candidates. Clinical trials of vaccines for vivax malaria incorporating Plasmodium vivax CSP (PvCSP) have demonstrated their effectiveness in preventing malaria, at least in part. However, genetic diversity of pvcsp in the natural population remains a major concern.

Genetic analysis of the orthologous crt and mdr1 genes in Plasmodium malariae from Thailand and Myanmar

September 1, 2020 - 10:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yupawadee Pimpat, Naowarat Saralamba, Usa Boonyuen, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Francois Nosten, Frank Smithuis, Nicholas P. J. Day, Arjen M. Dondorp and Mallika Imwong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:315, 31 August 2020

Plasmodium malariae is a widely spread but neglected human malaria parasite, which causes chronic infections. Studies on genetic polymorphisms of anti-malarial drug target genes in P. malariae are limited. Previous reports have shown polymorphisms in the P. malariae dihydrofolate reductase gene associated with pyrimethamine resistance and linked to pyrimethamine drug pressure. This study investigated polymorphisms of the P. malariae homologous genes, chloroquine resistant transporter and multidrug resistant 1, associated with chloroquine and mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.

Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum cases and molecular surveillance of drug resistance genes in Western Myanmar

September 1, 2020 - 09:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yanrui Wu, Myat Thut Soe, Pyae Linn Aung, Luyi Zhao, Weilin Zeng, Lynette Menezes, Zhaoqing Yang, Myat Phone Kyaw and Liwang Cui
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:304, 27 August 2020

Currently, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line anti-malarial treatment in malaria-endemic areas. However, resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin-based combinations emerging in the Greater Mekong Sub-region is a major problem hindering malaria elimination. To continuously monitor the potential spread of ACT-resistant parasites, this study assessed the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for falciparum malaria in western Myanmar.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of topical repellent distributed by village health volunteer networks against Plasmodium spp. infection in Myanmar: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial

August 24, 2020 - 13:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Agius PA, Cutts JC, Fowkes FJI, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Aug 20;17(8):e1003177

The World Health Organization has yet to endorse deployment of topical repellents for malaria prevention as part of public health campaigns. We aimed to quantify the effectiveness of repellent distributed by the village health volunteer (VHV) network in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) in reducing malaria in order to advance regional malaria elimination.

Polymorphism analysis of propeller domain of k13 gene in Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri isolates original infection from Myanmar and Africa in Yunnan Province, China

July 14, 2020 - 09:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mengni Chen, Ying Dong, Yan Deng, Yanchun Xu, Yan Liu, Canglin Zhang and Herong Huang
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:246, 13 July 2020

Eighteen imported ovale malaria cases imported from Myanmar and various African countries have been reported in Yunnan Province, China from 2013 to 2018. All of them have been confirmed by morphological examination and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA) based PCR in YNRL. Nevertheless, the subtypes of Plasmodium ovale could not be identified based on 18S rRNA gene test, thus posing challenges on its accurate diagnosis. To help establish a more sensitive and specific method for the detection of P. ovale genes, this study performs sequence analysis on k13-propeller polymorphisms in P. ovale.

Efficacy and Safety of Pyronaridine-Artesunate for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Myanmar

June 15, 2020 - 15:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Han KT, Lin K, Han ZY, Myint MK, Aye KH, Thi A, Thapa B, Bustos MD, Borghini-Fuhrer I, Ringwald P, Duparc S
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jun 8

Four single-arm, prospective, clinical studies of pyronaridine–artesunate efficacy in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria were conducted in Myanmar between 2017 and 2019. Eligible subjects were aged at least 6 years, with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum (n = 196) or P. vivax mono-infection (n = 206). Patients received pyronaridine–artesunate once daily for 3 days with follow-up until day 42 for P. falciparum or day 28 for P. vivax.

Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface protein-3 in Myanmar Plasmodium falciparum field isolates

May 20, 2020 - 10:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hương Giang Lê, Thị Lam Thái, Byoung-Kuk Na, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:184, 19 May 2020

Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-3 (PfMSP-3) is a target of naturally acquired immunity against P. falciparum infection and is a promising vaccine candidate because of its critical role in the erythrocyte invasion of the parasite. Understanding the genetic diversity of pfmsp-3 is important for recognizing genetic nature and evolutionary aspect of the gene in the natural P. falciparum population and for designing an effective vaccine based on the antigen.

Screening for malaria antigen and anti-malarial IgG antibody in forcibly-displaced Myanmar nationals: Cox’s Bazar district, Bangladesh, 2018

March 31, 2020 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Austin Lu, Olivia Cote, Eric Rogier, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:130, 30 March 2020

Several refugee settlements in Bangladesh have provided housing and medical care for the forcibly-displaced Myanmar nationals (FDMN, also known as Rohingya) population. The identification of malaria infection status in the refugee settlements is useful in treating infected persons and in developing malaria prevention recommendations. Assays for Plasmodium antigens and human IgG against Plasmodium parasites can be used as indicators to determine malaria infection status and exposure.

Epidemiology of malaria and chloroquine resistance in Mizoram, northeastern India, a malaria-endemic region bordering Myanmar

March 3, 2020 - 12:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rita Zomuanpuii, Christopher L. Hmar, Khawlhring Lallawmzuala, Lal Hlimpuia, Praveen Balabaskaran Nina and Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:95, 27 February 2020

Mizoram, a northeastern state in India, shares international borders with Myanmar and Bangladesh and is considered to be one of the key routes through which drug-resistant parasites of Southeast Asia enter mainland India. Despite its strategic location and importance, malaria epidemiology and molecular status of chloroquine resistance had not been well documented, and since chloroquine (CQ), as the first-line treatment in Plasmodium falciparum infection was discontinued since 2008, it was expected that CQ-sensitive haplotype would be more abundant.

NOT open Access | Associations among Soil-Transmitted Helminths, G6PD Deficiency and Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia, and Anemia in Schoolchildren from a Conflict Zone of Northeast Myanmar

February 25, 2020 - 13:57 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zeng W, Malla P, Xu X, Pi L, Zhao L, He X, He Y, Menezes LJ, Cui L, Yang Z
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Feb 10


In tropical areas of developing countries, the interactions among parasitic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and malaria, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd), are complex. Here, we investigated their interactions and impact on anemia in school students residing in a conflict zone of northeast Myanmar. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and December 2015 in two schools located along the China–Myanmar border.

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