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Myanmar

Predictors of malaria rapid diagnostic test positivity in a high burden area of Paletwa Township, Chin State in Western Myanmar

January 13, 2021 - 11:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Aung PL, Soe MT, Oo TL, Khin A, Thi A, Zhao Y, Cao Y, Cui L, Kyaw MP, Parker DM.
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 Jan 11;10(1):6

Despite major reductions in malaria burden across Myanmar, clusters of the disease continue to persist in specific subregions. This study aimed to assess the predictors of test positivity among people living in Paletwa Township of Chin State, an area of persistently high malaria burden.

Community demand for comprehensive primary health care from malaria volunteers in South-East Myanmar: a qualitative study

January 9, 2021 - 13:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Win Han Oo, Elizabeth Hoban, Lisa Gold, Kyu Kyu Than, Thazin La, Aung Thi and Freya J. I. Fowkes
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:19, 6 January 2021

Malaria volunteers have contributed significantly to malaria control achieving a reduction of annual parasite incidence to pre-elimination levels in several townships across Myanmar. However, the volunteers’ role is changing as Myanmar transitions from a malaria control to elimination programme and towards the goal of universal health coverage. The aim of the study is to explore the perspectives of community leaders, members and malaria volunteers in South-East Myanmar on community-delivered models to inform an optimal design that targets malaria elimination in the context of primary health care in Myanmar.

From control to elimination: a spatial-temporal analysis of malaria along the China-Myanmar border

November 25, 2020 - 12:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Huang F, Zhang L, Xue JB, Zhou HN, Thi A, Zhang J, Zhou SS, Xia ZG, Zhou XN
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Nov 19;9(1):158

Malaria cases have declined significantly along the China-Myanmar border in the past 10 years and this region is going through a process from control to elimination. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of malaria along the border, will identify challenges in the progress from control to elimination.

Genetic polymorphism of vir genes of Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar

November 4, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Na BK, Kim TS, Lin K, Baek MC, Chung DI, Hong Y, Goo YK
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2020 Oct 31:102233

The Plasmodium vivax variant proteins encoded by vir genes are highly polymorphic antigens and are considered as one of key proteins of P. vivax for host immune evasion via antigenic variations. Because genetic diversity of these antigens is a critical hurdle in the development of an effective vaccine, understanding the genetic nature of the vir genes in natural population is important.

Genetic variations in histidine-rich protein 2 and histidine-rich protein 3 of Myanmar Plasmodium falciparum isolates

November 4, 2020 - 10:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hương Giang Lê, Jung-Mi Kang, Jinyoung Lee, Won Gi Yoo, Moe Kyaw Myint, Khin Lin, Tong-Soo Kim and Byoung-Kuk Na
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:388, 2 November 2020

Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are precious tools to diagnose malaria. Most RDTs used currently are based on the detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) in a patient’s blood. However, concern has been raised in recent years that deletion of pfhrp2 in the parasite could affect the accuracy of PfHRP2-based RDTs. In addition, genetic variation in pfhrp2 might influence the accuracy and sensitivity of RDTs. In this study, the genetic variation in pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 in Myanmar P. falciparum isolates was analysed.

Impact of outdoor residual spraying on the biting rate of malaria vectors: A pilot study in four villages in Kayin state, Myanmar

November 3, 2020 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chaumeau V, Kajeechiwa L, Nosten F, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Oct 29;15(10):e0240598

Outdoor and early mosquito biters challenge the efficacy of bed-nets and indoor residual spraying on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Outdoor residual spraying is proposed for the control of exophilic mosquito species. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of outdoor residual spraying on the biting rate of malaria vectors in Kayin state, Myanmar. Outdoor residual spraying using lambda-cyhalothrin was carried out in two villages in December 2016 (beginning of the dry season) and two villages were used as a control.

Multisectoral Approach to Support Use of Insecticide-Treated Net for Malaria Prevention Among Mobile and Migrant Populations in Myanmar: A Systematic Review

November 3, 2020 - 15:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Naing C, Whittaker MA, Tanner M
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 29;222(Supplement_8):S717-S725

Myanmar is a premalaria elimination country with artemisinin-resistant malaria. A strategy for transmission control is focused on vulnerable groups such as mobile and migrant populations (MMPs), and includes improving access to insecticide-treated bed nets in the Myanmar artemisinin resistance containment (MARC) zones using multisectoral approaches (MSA).

NOT Open Access | Detection and molecular identification of Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium species from village chickens in different areas of Myanmar

September 29, 2020 - 13:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Win SY, Chel HM, Hmoon MM, Htun LL, Bawm S, Win MM, Murata S, Nonaka N, Nakao R, Katakura K
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2020 Sep 22:105719

Village chicken production, a traditional, small-scale, and extensive backyard poultry industry, has been profitable for local farmers in Myanmar. However, there is scanty information available concerning the infection of these chickens with avian pathogens, including haemoprotozoan parasites. In the present study, we provide the first report of microscopic detection and molecular identification of Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium parasites from seven different areas of Myanmar. Leucocytozoon gametocytes were detected in 17.6% (81/461) of the blood smears from village chickens.

Genetic polymorphism and natural selection of circumsporozoite protein in Myanmar Plasmodium vivax

September 8, 2020 - 11:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tuấn Cường Võ, Hương Giang Lê, Jung-Mi Kang, Mya Moe, Haung Naw, Moe Kyaw Myint, Jinyoung Lee, Woon-Mok Sohn, Tong-Soo Kim and Byoung-Kuk Na
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:303, 4 September 2020

Circumsporozoite surface protein (CSP) of malaria parasites has been recognized as one of the leading vaccine candidates. Clinical trials of vaccines for vivax malaria incorporating Plasmodium vivax CSP (PvCSP) have demonstrated their effectiveness in preventing malaria, at least in part. However, genetic diversity of pvcsp in the natural population remains a major concern.

Genetic analysis of the orthologous crt and mdr1 genes in Plasmodium malariae from Thailand and Myanmar

September 1, 2020 - 10:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yupawadee Pimpat, Naowarat Saralamba, Usa Boonyuen, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Francois Nosten, Frank Smithuis, Nicholas P. J. Day, Arjen M. Dondorp and Mallika Imwong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:315, 31 August 2020

Plasmodium malariae is a widely spread but neglected human malaria parasite, which causes chronic infections. Studies on genetic polymorphisms of anti-malarial drug target genes in P. malariae are limited. Previous reports have shown polymorphisms in the P. malariae dihydrofolate reductase gene associated with pyrimethamine resistance and linked to pyrimethamine drug pressure. This study investigated polymorphisms of the P. malariae homologous genes, chloroquine resistant transporter and multidrug resistant 1, associated with chloroquine and mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.

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