In the present study, we demonstrate that the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) can be used as an effective alternative in vivo model for investigating hypnozoite-induced relapsing infection caused by Plasmodium cynomolgi B strain, and that this model is comparable to the rhesus macaque model. Two female Japanese macaques (JM-1 and JM-2; aged 5 years; weighing about 4.0 kg) were used for the experiment.
Malaria is a global health problem leading to the death of 435,000 cases in tropical and sub-tropical zones. Spread and emergence of increasing resistance to the antimalarial drugs are the major challenges in the control of malaria. Therefore, searching for alternative antimalarial drugs is urgently needed, and combination treatment preferred as an approach to address this. This study aimed to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of zingerone (ZN), and its combination with dihydroartemisinin (DHA) against Plasmodium berghei infected mice.
The Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) cysteine-rich protective antigen (PfCyRPA) has emerged as a promising blood-stage candidate antigen for inclusion into a broadly cross-reactive malaria vaccine. This highly conserved protein among various geographical strains plays a key role in the red blood cell invasion process by P. falciparum merozoites, and antibodies against PfCyRPA can efficiently prevent the entry of the malaria parasites into red blood cells.
During the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in Western Africa (2013‒2016), antimalarial treatment was administered to EVD patients due to the high coexisting malaria burden in accordance with World Health Organization guidelines. In an Ebola treatment center in Liberia, EVD patients receiving the combination antimalarial artesunate-amodiaquine had a lower risk of death compared to those treated with artemether-lumefantrine.
The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium is a key surface antigen that induces antibodies and T-cells, conferring immune protection in animal models and humans. However, much of the work on CSP and immunity has been developed based on studies using rodent or non-human primate CSP antigens, which may not be entirely translatable to CSP expressed by human malaria parasites, especially considering the host specificity of the different species.
The most widely used antimalarial drugs belong to the quinoline family. Their mode of action has not been characterized at the molecular level in vivo. We report the in vivo mode of action of a bromo analog of the drug chloroquine in rapidly frozen Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.