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in vivo

From Circulation to Cultivation: Plasmodium In Vivo versus In Vitro

September 23, 2020 - 09:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Brown AC, Guler JL
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Sep 18:S1471-4922(20)30224-5

Research on Plasmodium parasites has driven breakthroughs in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality. Experimental analysis of in vivo/ex vivo versus in vitro samples serve unique roles in Plasmodium research. However, these distinctly different environments lead to discordant biology between parasites in host circulation and those under laboratory cultivation.

Live In Vivo Imaging of Plasmodium Invasion of the Mosquito Midgut

September 5, 2020 - 14:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Trisnadi N, Barillas-Mury C
Reference: 
mSphere. 2020 Sep 2;5(5):e00692-20

The mosquito midgut is a critical barrier that Plasmodium parasites must overcome to complete their developmental cycle and be transmitted to a new vertebrate host. Previous confocal studies with fixed infected midguts showed that ookinetes traverse midgut epithelial cells and cause irreversible tissue damage. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of ookinete midgut traversal and the response of midgut cells to invasion.

Repurposing Heparin as Antimalarial: Evaluation of Multiple Modifications Toward In Vivo Application

September 2, 2020 - 11:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lantero E, Aláez-Versón CR, Romero P, Sierra T, Fernàndez-Busquets X
Reference: 
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(9), 825

Heparin is a promising antimalarial drug due to its activity in inhibiting Plasmodium invasion of red blood cells and to the lack of resistance evolution by the parasite against it, but its potent anticoagulant activity is preventing the advance of heparin along the clinical pipeline. We have determined, in in vitro Plasmodium falciparum cultures, the antimalarial activity of heparin-derived structures of different origins and sizes, to obtain formulations having a good balance of in vitro safety (neither cytotoxic nor hemolytic), low anticoagulant activity (≤23 IU/mL according to activated partial thromboplastin time assays), and not too low antimalarial activity (IC50 at least around 100 µg/mL).

Activities of artesunate-based combinations and tafenoquine against Babesia bovis in vitro and Babesia microti in vivo

July 21, 2020 - 15:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carvalho LJM, Tuvshintulga B, Nugraha AB, Sivakumar T, Yokoyama N
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jul 20;13(1):362

Babesiosis represents a veterinary and medical threat, with a need for novel drugs. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) have been successfully implemented for malaria, a human disease caused by related parasites, Plasmodium spp. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ACT is active against Babesia in vitro and in vivo.

In silico and in vivo anti-malarial investigation on 1-(heteroaryl)-2-((5-nitroheteroaryl)methylene) hydrazine derivatives

June 30, 2020 - 14:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Azar Tahghighi, Seyed-Mahdi Mohamadi-Zarch, Hamzeh Rahimi, Mahya Marashiyan, Naseh Maleki-Ravasan and Ali Eslamifar
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:231, 29 June 2020

Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against common anti-malarial drugs emphasizes the need of alternative and more effective drugs. Synthetic derivatives of 1-(heteroaryl)-2-((5-nitroheteroaryl)methylene) hydrazine have showed in vitro anti-plasmodial activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the molecular binding and anti-plasmodial activity of synthetic compounds in vivo.

DFIQ, a Novel Quinoline Derivative, Shows Anticancer Potential by Inducing Apoptosis and Autophagy in NSCLC Cell and In Vivo Zebrafish Xenograft Models

June 1, 2020 - 16:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Huang HW, Bow YD, Wang CY, Chen YC, Fu PR, Chang KF, Wang TW, Tseng CH, Chen YL, Chiu CC
Reference: 
Cancers (Basel). 2020 May 25; 12(5):E1348

Lung cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide due to chemoresistance in patients with late-stage disease. Quinoline derivatives show biological activity against HIV, malaria, bacteriuria, and cancer. DFIQ is a novel synthetic quinoline derivative that induces cell death in both in vitro and in vivo zebrafish xenograft models. DFIQ induced cell death, including apoptosis, and the IC50 values were 4.16 and 2.31 μM at 24 and 48 h, respectively.

NOT Open Access | In silico, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of natural Bignoniaceous naphthoquinones in comparison with atovaquone targeting the selection of potential antimalarial candidates

June 1, 2020 - 16:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
do Nascimento MFA, Borgati TF, de Souza LCR, Tagliati CA, de Oliveira AB
Reference: 
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2020 May 25:115074

The natural naphthoquinones lapachol, α- and β-lapachone are found in Bignoniaceous Brazilian plant species of the Tabebuia genus (synonym Handroanthus) and are recognized for diverse bioactivities, including as antimalarial. The aim of the present work was to perform in silico, in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluating the antimalarial potential of these three naphthoquinones in comparison with atovaquone, a synthetic antimalarial.

Experimentally engineered mutations in a ubiquitin hydrolase, UBP-1, modulate in vivo susceptibility to artemisinin and chloroquine in Plasmodium berghei

April 29, 2020 - 09:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Simwela NV, Hughes KR, Roberts AB, Rennie MT, Barrett MP, Waters AP
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Apr 27. pii: AAC.02484-19

As resistance to artemisinins (current frontline drugs in malaria treatment) emerges in south East Asia, there is an urgent need to identify the genetic determinants and understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning such resistance. Such insights could lead to prospective interventions to contain resistance and prevent the eventual spread to other malaria endemic regions. Artemisinin reduced susceptibility in South East Asia (SEA) has been primarily linked to mutations in P. falciparum Kelch-13, which is currently widely recognised as a molecular marker of artemisinin resistance.

Development of an effective alternative model for in vivo hypnozoite-induced relapse infection: A Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) model experimentally infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi

March 3, 2020 - 15:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kawai S, Annoura T, Araki T, Shiogama Y, Soma S, Takano JI, Sato MO, Kaneko O, Yasutomi Y, Chigusa Y
Reference: 
Parasitology International, 2020 Feb 27:102096

In the present study, we demonstrate that the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) can be used as an effective alternative in vivo model for investigating hypnozoite-induced relapsing infection caused by Plasmodium cynomolgi B strain, and that this model is comparable to the rhesus macaque model. Two female Japanese macaques (JM-1 and JM-2; aged 5 years; weighing about 4.0 kg) were used for the experiment.

NOT Open Access | Combination of zingerone and dihydroartemisinin presented synergistic antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei infection in BALB/c mice as in vivo model

March 2, 2020 - 14:07 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ounjaijean S, Somsak V
Reference: 
Parasitology International, 20 February 2020, 102088

Malaria is a global health problem leading to the death of 435,000 cases in tropical and sub-tropical zones. Spread and emergence of increasing resistance to the antimalarial drugs are the major challenges in the control of malaria. Therefore, searching for alternative antimalarial drugs is urgently needed, and combination treatment preferred as an approach to address this. This study aimed to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of zingerone (ZN), and its combination with dihydroartemisinin (DHA) against Plasmodium berghei infected mice.

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