Malaria is a major public health problem in Cameroon. The study of the genetic diversity within parasite population is essential for understanding the mechanism underlying malaria pathology and to determine parasite clones profile in an infection, for proper malaria control strategies. The objective of this study was to perform a molecular characterization of highly polymorphic genetic markers of Plasmodium falciparum, and to determine allelic distribution with their influencing factors valuable to investigate malaria transmission dynamics in Cameroon.
Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is a major target in diagnosing the erythrocytic stage of malaria parasites because it is highly expressed during blood-stage parasites and is distinguished from human LDH. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria use pLDH as a target antigen; however, genetic variations in pLDH within the natural population threaten the efficacy of pLDH-based RDTs.
While the utility of parasite genotyping for malaria elimination has been extensively documented in low to moderate transmission settings, it has been less well-characterized in holoendemic regions. High malaria burden settings have received renewed attention acknowledging their critical role in malaria elimination. Defining the role for parasite genomics in driving these high burden settings towards elimination will enhance future control programme planning.
Merozoite proteins of the malaria parasites involved in the invasion of red blood cells are selected by host immunity and their diversity is greatly influenced by changes in Myanmar malaria epidemiology. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), malaria transmission is concentrated along the international borders and there have been major changes in malaria epidemiology with Plasmodium vivax becoming the dominant species in many regions. Here, we aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of P. vivax Duffy-binding protein gene domain II (pvdbp-II) in isolates from the eastern and western borders of Myanmar, and compared it with that from global P. vivax populations.
Drug resistance is one of the greatest challenges of malaria control programme in Mali. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide new and effective ways of tracking drug-resistant malaria parasites in Africa.