Pre-erythrocytic vaccines prevent malaria by targeting parasites in the clinically silent sporozoite and liver stages and preventing progression to the virulent blood stages. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S/AS01E (Mosquirix®) entered implementation programs in 2019 and targets the major sporozoite surface antigen called circumsporozoite protein or CSP.
An estimated 229 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide in 2019. Both, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax are responsible for most of the malaria disease burden in the world. Despite difficulties in obtaining an accurate number, the global estimates of cases in 2019 are approximately 229 million of which 2.8% are due to P. vivax, and the total number of malaria deaths are approximately 409 million.