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Mozambique

Not Open Access | The short-term impact of a malaria elimination initiative in Southern Mozambique: Application of the synthetic control method to routine surveillance data

June 15, 2021 - 14:40 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Thomas R, Cirera L, Brew J, Saúte F, Sicuri E
Reference: 
Health Econ. 2021 Jun 8

In public health epidemiology, quasi-experimental methods are widely used to estimate the causal impacts of interventions. In this paper, we demonstrate the contribution the synthetic control method (SCM) can make in evaluating public health interventions, when routine surveillance data are available and the validity of other quasi-experimental approaches may be in question.

Accuracy of verbal autopsy, clinical data and minimally invasive autopsy in the evaluation of malaria-specific mortality: an observational study

June 9, 2021 - 14:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rakislova N, Jordao D, Ordi J, et al.
Reference: 
BMJ Glob Health. 2021 Jun;6(6):e005218

Global malaria mortality estimates are hindered by the low reliability of the verbal autopsy (VA) and the clinical records, the most common sources of information used to estimate malaria-specific mortality. We aimed to determine the accuracy of these tools, as well as of the minimally invasive autopsy (MIA), a needle-based postmortem sampling method, to identify malaria-specific mortality in a large series of deceased patients from Mozambique, using complete autopsy as the gold standard.

Factors associated with use of insecticide-treated net for malaria prevention in Manica District, Mozambique: a community-based cross-sectional survey

April 28, 2021 - 15:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Julia Scott, Mufaro Kanyangarara, Abel Nhama, Eusebio Macete, William John Moss and Francisco Saute
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:200, 27 April 2021

Insecticide-treated net (ITN) use is crucial for preventing malaria infection. Despite significant improvements in ITN access and use over the past two decades, many malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa have not yet reached global targets for universal coverage of ITNs. To reduce the gaps in ITN use, it is important to understand the factors associated with ITN use. The goal of this analysis was to determine the factors associated with ITN use in Manica District, Mozambique.

Community acceptability to antimalarial mass drug administrations in Magude district, Southern Mozambique: A mixed methods study

March 24, 2021 - 14:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Galatas B, Nhantumbo H, Munguambe K, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 23;16(3):e0249080

This study aimed to capture the acceptability prior to, during and after the implementation of the first year of MDA rounds conducted under the Magude project, a malaria elimination project in southern Mozambique.

Cost and cost-effectiveness of indoor residual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl in a high malaria transmission district of Mozambique with high access to standard insecticide-treated nets

March 13, 2021 - 17:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alonso S, Chaccour CJ, Wagman J, Candrinho B, Muthoni R, Saifodine A, Saute F, Robertson M, Zulliger R
Reference: 
Malar J. 2021 Mar 10;20(1):143

As malaria cases increase in some of the highest burden countries, more strategic deployment of new and proven interventions must be evaluated to meet global malaria reduction goals.

Methods

The cost and cost-effectiveness of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic®300 CS) were assessed in a high transmission district (Mopeia) with high access to pyrethroid insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), compared to ITNs alone. The major mosquito vectors in the area were susceptible to primiphos-methyl, but resistant to pyrethoids. A decision analysis approach was followed to conduct deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in a theoretical cohort of 10,000 children under five years of age (U5) and 10,000 individuals of all ages, separately. Model parameters and distributions were based on prospectively collected cost and epidemiological data from a cluster-randomized control trial and a literature review. The primary analysis used health facility-malaria incidence, while community cohort incidence and cross-sectional prevalence rates were used in sensitivity analyses. Lifetime costs, malaria cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated to determine the incremental costs per DALY averted through IRS.

Incremental impact on malaria incidence following indoor residual spraying in a highly endemic area with high standard ITN access in Mozambique: results from a cluster‐randomized study

February 11, 2021 - 09:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carlos Chaccour, Rose Zulliger, Francisco Saute, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:84, 10 February 2021

Attaining the goal of reducing the global malaria burden is threatened by recent setbacks in maintaining the effectiveness of vector control interventions partly due to the emergence of pyrethroid resistant vectors. One potential strategy to address these setbacks could be combining indoor residual spraying (IRS) with non-pyrethroids and standard insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study aimed to provide evidence on the incremental epidemiological benefit of using third-generation IRS product in a highly endemic area with high ITN ownership.

Biomarkers to distinguish bacterial from viral pediatric clinical pneumonia in a malaria endemic setting

February 9, 2021 - 09:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gillette MA, Mani DR, Wirth DF, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 3:ciaa1843

Differential etiologies of pediatric acute febrile respiratory illness pose challenges for all populations globally but especially in malaria-endemic settings because the pathogens responsible overlap in clinical presentation and frequently occur together. Rapid identification of bacterial pneumonia with high quality diagnostic tools would enable appropriate, point of care antibiotic treatment. Current diagnostics are insufficient, and the discovery and development of new tools is needed. We report a unique biomarker signature identified in blood samples to accomplish this.

Plasma MicroRNA Profiling of Plasmodium falciparum Biomass and Association with Severity of Malaria Disease

February 3, 2021 - 14:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gupta H, Rubio M, Mayor A, et al.
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Feb;27(2):430-442

Severe malaria (SM) is a major public health problem in malaria-endemic countries. Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in vital organs and the associated inflammation leads to organ dysfunction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are rapidly released from damaged tissues into the host fluids, constitute a promising biomarker for the prognosis of SM.

Reduced exposure to malaria vectors following indoor residual spraying of pirimiphos-methyl in a high-burden district of rural Mozambique with high ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets: entomological surveillance results from a cluster-randomized t

January 27, 2021 - 11:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joseph M. Wagman, Kenyssony Varela, Molly Robertson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:54, 21 January 2021

The need to develop new products and novel approaches for malaria vector control is recognized as a global health priority. One approach to meeting this need has been the development of new products for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with novel active ingredients for public health. While initial results showing the impact of several of these next-generation IRS products have been encouraging, questions remain about how to best deploy them for maximum impact. To help address these questions, a 2-year cluster-randomized controlled trial to measure the impact of IRS with a microencapsulated formulation of pirimiphos-methyl (PM) in an area with high ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was conducted in a high-transmission district of central Mozambique with pyrethroid resistant vectors. Presented here are the results of the vector surveillance component of the trial.

A cost analysis to address issues of budget constraints on the implementation of the indoor residual spray programme in two districts of Maputo Province, Mozambique

January 7, 2021 - 11:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Neide Canana
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:8, 6 January 2021

It is frequently said that funding is essential to ensure optimal results from a malaria intervention control. However, in recent years, the capacity of the government of Mozambique to sustain the operational cost of indoor residual spraying (IRS) is facing numerous challenges due to restrictions of the Official Development Assistance. The purpose of the study was to estimate the cost of IRS operationalization in two districts of Maputo Province (Matutuíne and Namaacha) in Mozambique. The evidence produced in this study intends to provide decision-makers with insight into where they need to pay close attention in future planning in order to operationalize IRS with the existent budget in the actual context of budget restrictions.

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