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Evaluation of two Plasmodium vivax sexual stage antigens as transmission-blocking vaccine candidates

August 18, 2021 - 16:52 -- Open Access
Zhang Y, Liu F, Zhao Y, Yang F, Bai J, Jia X, Roobsoong W, Sattabongkot J, Cui L, Cao Y, Luo E, Wang M
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Aug 16;14(1):407

Plasmodium vivax transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) are receiving increasing attention. Based on excellent transmission-blocking activities of the PbPH (PBANKA_0417200) and PbSOP26 (PBANKA_1457700) antigens in Plasmodium berghei, their orthologs in P. vivax, PVX_098655 (PvPH) and PVX_101120 (PvSOP26), were selected for the evaluation of their potential as TBVs.

Pfs230 yields higher malaria transmission-blocking vaccine activity than Pfs25 in humans but not mice

February 10, 2021 - 10:03 -- Open Access
Healy SA, Anderson CF, Duffy PE, et al.
J Clin Invest. 2021 Feb 9:146221

Vaccines that block human-to-mosquito Plasmodium transmission are needed for malaria eradication and clinical trials have targeted zygote antigen Pfs25 for decades. We reported that a Pfs25 protein-protein conjugate vaccine formulated in alum adjuvant induced significant serum functional activity in both US and Malian adults. However, antibody titers declined rapidly, and transmission-reducing activity required four vaccine doses. Functional immunogenicity and durability must be improved before advancing TBV further in clinical development. We hypothesized that the pre-fertilization protein Pfs230 alone or in combination with Pfs25 would improve functional activity.

NOT Open Access | The C-terminal region of the Plasmodium yoelii microgamete surface antigen PyMiGS induces potent anti-malarial transmission-blocking immunity in mice

March 17, 2020 - 12:55 -- NOT Open Access
Tachibana M, Baba M, Takashima E, Tsuboi T, Torii M, Ishino T
Vaccine Volume 38, Issue 15, 30 March 2020, Pages 3129-3136

Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) aim to inhibit parasite fertilization or further development within the mosquito midgut. Because TBV-immunized individuals reduce the transmission of malaria parasites to mosquito vectors, TBVs could serve as a promising strategy to eliminate malaria.

Evaluation of Plasmodium vivax HAP2 as a transmission-blocking vaccine candidate

March 2, 2020 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Qiu Y, Zhao Y, Liu F, Ye B, Zhao Z, Thongpoon S, Roobsoong W, Sattabongkot J, Cui L, Fan Q, Cao Y
Vaccine. 2020 Feb 21. pii: S0264-410X(20)30184-5

Transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) is a promising strategy to interfere with the transmission of malaria. To date, only limited TBV candidate antigens have been identified for Plasmodium vivax. HAP2 is a gamete membrane fusion protein, with homology to the class II viral fusion proteins. Herein we reported the characterization of the PvHAP2 for its potential as a TBV candidate for P. vivax.

A C-terminal Pfs48/45 malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate produced in the baculovirus expression system

February 2, 2020 - 17:28 -- Open Access
Shwu-Maan Lee, John M. Hickey, Kazutoyo Miura, Sangeeta B. Joshi, David B. Volkin, C. Richter King, Jordan L. Plieskatt
Scientific Reports volume 10:395 (2020)

The Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte surface protein, Pfs48/45, is a potential target for malaria transmission-blocking vaccines. However, due to its size and complexity, expression of the full-length protein has been difficult, leading to focus on the C-terminal six cysteine domain (6C) with the use of fusion proteins to facilitate expression and folding. In this study, we utilized the baculovirus system to evaluate the expression of three Pfs48/45 proteins including the full-length protein, the 6C domain fragment and the 6C domain mutant to prevent glycosylation.

Functional Characterization and Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum Proteins as Targets of Transmission-blocking Antibodies

January 6, 2020 - 16:33 -- Open Access
Nikolaeva D, Illingworth JJ, Biswas S, et al.
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics January 1, 2020, 19 (1) 155-166

Plasmodium falciparum malaria continues to evade control efforts, utilizing highly specialized sexual-stages to transmit infection between the human host and mosquito vector. In a vaccination model, antibodies directed to sexual-stage antigens, when ingested in the mosquito blood meal, can inhibit parasite growth in the midgut and consequently arrest transmission. Despite multiple datasets for the Plasmodium sexual-stage transcriptome and proteome, there have been no rational screens to identify candidate antigens for transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) development.

NOT Open Access |Recent advances in transmission-blocking drugs for malaria elimination

December 2, 2019 - 15:10 -- NOT Open Access
Wadi I, Nath M, Anvikar AR, Singh P, Sinha A.
Future Med Chem. 2019 Nov 29.

The scientific community worldwide has realized that malaria elimination will not be possible without development of safe and effective transmission-blocking interventions. Primaquine, the only WHO recommended transmission-blocking drug, is not extensively utilized because of the toxicity issues in G6PD deficient individuals.

A Viral-Vectored Multi-Stage Malaria Vaccine Regimen With Protective and Transmission-Blocking Efficacies

November 7, 2019 - 21:56 -- Open Access
Yusuf Y, Yoshii T, Iyori M, Mizukami H, Fukumoto S, Yamamoto DS, Emran TB, Amelia F, Islam A, Syafira I, Yoshida S
Front Immunol. 2019 Oct 15;10:2412 (eCollection 2019)

Malaria parasites undergo several stages in their complex lifecycle. To achieve reductions in both the individual disease burden and malaria transmission within communities, a multi-stage malaria vaccine with high effectiveness and durability is a more efficacious strategy compared with a single-stage vaccine.

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