Relapses of Plasmodium vivax malaria are prevented by 8-aminoquinolines. If hypnozoites survive, then the subsequent blood stage infections in early relapses (< 2 months) are suppressed by the slowly eliminated anti-malarial drugs used to treat the blood stage infection (chloroquine, artemisinin combination treatments), but they are not usually eliminated.
Drug-resistant Plasmodium is a frequent global threat in malaria eradication programmes, highlighting the need for new anti-malarial drugs and efficient detection of treatment failure. Plasmodium falciparum culture is essential in drug discovery and resistance surveillance. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained erythrocytes is common for determining anti-malarial effects on the intraerythrocytic development of cultured Plasmodium parasites. Giemsa-based microscopy use is conventional but laborious, and its accuracy depends largely on examiner skill.