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Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (pfhrp2): an additional genetic marker suitable for anti-malarial drug efficacy trials

January 12, 2022 - 23:38 -- Open Access
Wahib M. Atroosh, Yee-Ling Lau, Georges Snounou, Meram Azzani and Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi
Malaria Journal 2022 21:2, 4 January 2022

Genotyping of the three Plasmodium falciparum polymorphic genes, msp1, msp2 and glurp, has been adopted as a standard strategy to distinguish recrudescence from new infection in drug efficacy clinical trials. However, the suitability of a particular gene is compromised in areas where its allelic variants distribution is significantly skewed, a phenomenon that might occur in isolated parasite populations or in areas of very low transmission. Moreover, observation of amplification bias has diminished the value of glurp as a marker.

PfHRP2 detection using plasmonic optrodes: performance analysis

August 4, 2021 - 15:55 -- Open Access
Loyez M, Wells M, Hambÿe S, Hubinon F, Blankert B, Wattiez R, Caucheteur C
Malar J. 2021 Jul 28;20(1):332

Early malaria diagnosis and its profiling require the development of new sensing platforms enabling rapid and early analysis of parasites in blood or saliva, aside the widespread rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).

A comparative study of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) blood levels and peripheral blood parasitemia as parameters of disease severity in individuals with imported falciparum malaria

July 6, 2021 - 14:35 -- Open Access
Kwak JD, Young JJ, Stuij AC, Koelewijn R, van Hellemond JJ, van Genderen PJJ. Travel
Med Infect Dis. 2021 Jul-Aug;42:102076

In falciparum malaria the total parasite biomass can be estimated by blood levels of histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2), a Plasmodium falciparum-specific protein, which has been widely studied in malaria-endemic regions. This study investigates the usefulness of PfHRP2 as marker for disease severity in imported falciparum malaria.

Impact of Plasmodium falciparum pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions on malaria control worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis

June 23, 2021 - 14:08 -- Open Access
Irene Molina-de la Fuente, Andrea Pastor, Zaida Herrador, Agustín Benito and Pedro Berzosa
Malaria Journal 2021 20:276, 22 June 2021

Deletion of pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes cause false negatives in malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and threating malaria control strategies. This systematic review aims to assess the main methodological aspects in the study of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions and its global epidemiological status, with special focus on their distribution in Africa; and its possible impact in RDT.

Deletions of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were uncommon in rapid diagnostic test-negative Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Uganda

January 6, 2021 - 11:42 -- Open Access
Sam L. Nsobya, Andrew Walakira, Philip J. Rosenthal, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:4, 2 January 2021

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) play a key role in malaria case management. The most widely used RDT identifies Plasmodium falciparum based on immunochromatographic recognition of P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). Deletion of the paralogous pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes leads to false-negative PfHRP2-based RDTs, and has been reported in P. falciparum infections from South America and Africa. However, identification of pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions has usually been based only on failure to amplify these genes using PCR, without confirmation based on PfHRP2 protein expression, and understanding of the true prevalence of deletions is incomplete.

Evaluation of Histidine-Rich Proteins 2 and 3 Gene Deletions in Plasmodium falciparum in Endemic Areas of the Brazilian Amazon

January 1, 2021 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Góes L, Chamma-Siqueira N, Peres JM, Nascimento JM, Valle S, Arcanjo AR, Lacerda M, Blume L, Póvoa M, Viana G
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Dec 26;18(1):E123

Histidine-rich proteins 2 and 3 gene (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) deletions affect the efficacy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), compromising the correct identification of the Plasmodium falciparum species. Therefore, molecular surveillance is necessary for the investigation of the actual prevalence of this phenomenon and the extent of the disappearance of these genes in these areas and other South American countries, thus guiding national malaria control programs on the appropriate use of RDTs. This study aimed to evaluate the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion in P. falciparum in endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon.

Community-based surveys for Plasmodium falciparum pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in selected regions of mainland Tanzania

November 4, 2020 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Catherine Bakari, Sophie Jones, Deus S. Ishengoma, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:391, 4 November 2020

Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are effective and widely used for the detection of wild-type Plasmodium falciparum infections. Although recent studies have reported false negative HRP2 RDT results due to pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in different countries, there is a paucity of data on the deletions of these genes in Tanzania.

NOT Open Access | Lineage-Specific Expansion of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites With pfhrp2 Deletion in the Greater Mekong Subregion

October 7, 2020 - 14:48 -- NOT Open Access
Gibbons J, Qin J, Malla P, Wang Z, Brashear A, Wang C, Miao J, Adams JH, Kim K, Jiang R, Cui L
J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 1;222(9):1561-1569

Deletion of the pfhrp2 gene in Plasmodium falciparum can lead to false-negative rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results, constituting a major challenge for evidence-based malaria treatment. Here we analyzed the whole genome sequences of 138 P. falciparum clinical samples collected from the China-Myanmar boarder for pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions.

Misdiagnosis of imported falciparum malaria from African areas due to an increased prevalence of pfhrp2/pfhrp3 gene deletion: The Djibouti case

September 2, 2020 - 08:33 -- Open Access
Iriart X, Menard S, Chauvin P, Mohamed HS, Charpentier E, Mohamed MA, Berry A, Aboubaker MH
Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Sep 1:1-9

A case of imported falciparum malaria acquired in Djibouti was diagnosed in 2019 in the Toulouse University Hospital (France) by microscopy and a positive P. falciparum specific real-time PCR (qPCR).

Molecular surveillance reveals the presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations in Uganda, 2017–2019

August 27, 2020 - 08:09 -- Open Access
Agaba B. Bosco, Karen Anderson, Karryn Gresty, et al
Malaria Journal 2020 19:300, 26 August 2020

Histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the only RDTs recommended for malaria diagnosis in Uganda. However, the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 and 3 (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) gene deletions threatens their usefulness as malaria diagnostic and surveillance tools. The pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions surveillance was conducted in P. falciparum parasite populations in Uganda.


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