Deletion of the pfhrp2 gene in Plasmodium falciparum can lead to false-negative rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results, constituting a major challenge for evidence-based malaria treatment. Here we analyzed the whole genome sequences of 138 P. falciparum clinical samples collected from the China-Myanmar boarder for pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions.
A case of imported falciparum malaria acquired in Djibouti was diagnosed in 2019 in the Toulouse University Hospital (France) by microscopy and a positive P. falciparum specific real-time PCR (qPCR).
Histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the only RDTs recommended for malaria diagnosis in Uganda. However, the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 and 3 (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) gene deletions threatens their usefulness as malaria diagnostic and surveillance tools. The pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions surveillance was conducted in P. falciparum parasite populations in Uganda.
In malaria-endemic countries, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) targeting Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) and lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) have been widely used. However, little is known regarding the diagnostic performances of these RDTs in the Assosa zone of northwest Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performances of PfHRP2 and PfLDH RDTs using microscopy and quantitative PCR (qPCR) as a reference test.
Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have played an important role in enabling prompt malaria diagnosis in remote locations. However, emergence of pfhrp2 deleted parasites is threatening the efficacy of RDTs, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted surveillance of these deletions as a priority. Nested PCR is used to confirm pfhrp2 deletion but is costly and laborious.
Deletion of the pfhrp2 gene in Plasmodium falciparum can lead to false negative RDT results, constituting a major challenge for evidence-based malaria treatment. Here we analyzed the whole genome sequences of 138 P. falciparum clinical samples collected from the China-Myanmar boarder for pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions. We found pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions in 9.4% and 3.6% samples, respectively, with no samples harboring deletions of both genes.
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detecting the histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) have a central position for the management of Plasmodium falciparum infections. Yet, variable detection of certain targeted motifs, low parasitaemia, but also deletion of pfhrp2 gene or its homologue pfhrp3, may result in false-negative RDT leading to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence, and understanding the possible causes, of P. falciparum RDT-negative infections at Montpellier Academic Hospital, France.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as a good alternative malaria-diagnosis method in remote parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of commercial RDTs currently available detect the Plasmodium falciparum protein histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). There have also been recent reports of pfhrp2 gene deletions being found in parasites collected from several African countries. The WHO has concluded that lacking the pfhrp2 gene must be monitored in Africa. The purpose of the study was to analyse why the samples that were positive by PCR were negative by RDTs and, therefore, to determine whether there have been deletions in the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes.
Malaria diagnostics by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) relies primarily on the qualitative detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) and Plasmodium spp lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). As novel RDTs with increased sensitivity are being developed and implemented as point of care diagnostics, highly sensitive laboratory-based assays are needed for evaluating RDT performance. Here, a quantitative suspension array technology (qSAT) was developed, validated and applied for the simultaneous detection of PfHRP2 and pLDH in a variety of biological samples (whole blood, plasma and dried blood spots) from individuals living in different endemic countries.
The Plasmodium falciparum parasite is the only human malaria that produces the histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 (HRP2/3) antigens. Currently, HRP2/3 are widely used in malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), but several global reports have recently emerged showing genetic deletion of one or both of these antigens in parasites. Deletion of these antigens could pose a major concern for P. falciparum diagnosis in Haiti which currently uses RDTs based solely on the detection of the HRP2/3 antigens.