Mosquito-borne diseases remain a significant public health problem in tropical regions. Housing improvements such as screening of doors and windows may be effective in reducing disease transmission, but the impact remains unclear.
Residual transmission is the persistence of malaria transmission after scale-up of appropriate vector control tools and is one of the key challenges for malaria elimination today. Although long associated with outdoor biting, other mosquito behaviours such as partly feeding upon animals contribute greatly to sustaining transmission. Peri-domestic livestock can be used as decoy to protect humans from blood-seeking vectors but this approach often leads to an increased malaria risk in a phenomenon known as zoopotentiation.