In Uganda, childhood anemia remains a health challenge and is associated with malaria infection as well as iron deficiency. Iron deficiency is intertwined with nutritional status, age and other comorbidities including helminths and Lead toxicity. Environmental Lead levels accounts for one’s blood Lead (BL) levels. Blood Lead competitively blocks iron absorption, inhibits hemoglobin (Hb) biosynthesis and elevates free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels. Lead toxicity’s contribution towards anemia pathogenesis, especially during malaria infection has not been studied. Concomitant exposure to both malaria infection and Lead pollution, exacerbates the anemia status. This study therefore aimed at expounding the anemia status of these Ugandan children aged under 5years who are exposed to both malaria infection and environmental Lead pollution.