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Analysis of the potential for a malaria vaccine to reduce gaps in malaria intervention coverage

November 23, 2021 - 09:25 -- Open Access
H. Juliette T. Unwin, Lazaro Mwandigha, Peter Winskill, Azra C. Ghani and Alexandra B. Hogan
Malaria Journal 2021 20:438, 17 November 2021

The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine is currently being evaluated in a cluster-randomized pilot implementation programme in three African countries. This study seeks to identify whether vaccination could reach additional children who are at risk from malaria but do not currently have access to, or use, core malaria interventions.

NOT Open Access | patiotemporal Dynamic of the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine Target Antigens in Senegal

October 16, 2021 - 20:00 -- NOT Open Access
Diallo MA, L'Ollivier C, Diongue K, Badiane AS, Kodio A, Tall ML, Sy M, Seck MC, Sene D, Ndiaye M, Fall FB, Ranque S, Ndiaye D
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Oct 11:tpmd210369

The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine confers only moderate protection against malaria. Evidence suggests that the effectiveness of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine depends upon the parasite population genetics, specifically regarding the circumsporozoite protein haplotypes in the population. We investigated Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) gene sequences from two endemic sites in 2018 in Senegal.

Subclass and avidity of circumsporozoite protein specific antibodies associate with protection status against malaria infection

September 1, 2021 - 17:10 -- Open Access
Seaton KE, Spreng RL, Abraha M, Reichartz M, Dennison SM, et al.
NPJ Vaccines. 2021 Aug 30;6(1):110

RTS,S/AS01 is an advanced pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine candidate with demonstrated vaccine efficacy up to 86.7% in controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies; however, reproducible immune correlates of protection (CoP) are elusive. To identify candidates of humoral correlates of vaccine mediated protection, we measured antibody magnitude, subclass, and avidity for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by multiplex assays in two CHMI studies with varying RTS,S/AS01B vaccine dose and timing regimens.

Structural and biophysical correlation of anti-NANP antibodies with in vivo protection against P. falciparum

February 25, 2021 - 10:12 -- Open Access
Pholcharee T, Oyen D, Wilson IA, et al.
Nat Commun. 2021 Feb 16;12(1):1063

The most advanced P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein-based malaria vaccine, RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S), confers partial protection but with antibody titers that wane relatively rapidly, highlighting the need to elicit more potent and durable antibody responses. Here, we elucidate crystal structures, binding affinities and kinetics, and in vivo protection of eight anti-NANP antibodies derived from an RTS,S phase 2a trial and encoded by three different heavy-chain germline genes.

Potential effect modification of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine efficacy by household socio-economic status

February 2, 2021 - 16:26 -- Open Access
Gyaase S, Asante KP, Adeniji E, Boahen O, Cairns M, Owusu-Agyei S
BMC Public Health. 2021 Jan 28;21(1):240

In the phase III RTS,S /AS01 trial, significant heterogeneity in efficacy of the vaccine across study sites was seen. Question on whether variations in socio - economic status (SES) of participant contributed to the heterogeinity of the vaccine efficacy (VE) remains unknown.

Population genetic analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein in two distinct ecological regions in Ghana

December 2, 2020 - 07:45 -- Open Access
Elikplim A. Amegashie, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Courage Adobor, Peter Ogoti, Kevin Mbogo, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa and Anita Ghansah
Malaria Journal 2020 19:437, 27 November 2020

Extensive genetic diversity in the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) is a major contributing factor to the moderate efficacy of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine. The transmission intensity and rates of recombination within and between populations influence the extent of its genetic diversity. Understanding the extent and dynamics of PfCSP genetic diversity in different transmission settings will help to interpret the results of current RTS,S efficacy and Phase IV implementation trials conducted within and between populations in malaria-endemic areas such as Ghana.

Modelling the roles of antibody titre and avidity in protection from Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection following RTS,S/AS01 vaccination

November 3, 2020 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Thompson HA, Hogan AB, Walker PGT, White MT, Cunnington AJ, Ockenhouse CF, Ghani AC
Vaccine. 2020 Nov 3;38(47):7498-7507

Anti-circumsporozoite antibody titres have been established as an essential indicator for evaluating the immunogenicity and protective capacity of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine.

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