COVID-19 has been a threat throughout the world since December 2019. In attempts to discover an urgent treatment regime for COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) have been on solidarity clinical trial. However, many countries have pulled HCQ and CQ from their COVID-19 treatment regimens recently, some countries still continue using them for patients who have previously started HCQ and CQ and they may complete their course under the supervision of a doctor. HCQ and CQ are 4-aminoquinoline drugs and it is safe to use them for autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and malaria as well.
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is the placental receptor for the VAR2CSA malaria protein, expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes during Plasmodium falciparum infection. Infected cells adhere to syncytiotrophoblasts or get trapped within the intervillous space by binding to a determinant in a 4-O-sulfated CS chains. However, the exact structure of these glycan sequences remains unclear.
Thiamin deficiency, or beriberi, is an increasingly re-recognized cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Thiamin status has traditionally been measured through the erythrocyte activation assay (ETKA) or basal transketolase activity (ETK), which indirectly measures thiamin diphosphate (TDP). Thiamin diphosphate can also be measured directly by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which may allow a more precise estimation of thiamin status.