Determining the prevalence and local transmission dynamics of parasitic organisms are necessary to understand the ability of parasites to persist in host populations and disperse across regions, yet local transmission dynamics, diversity, and distribution of haemosporidian parasites remain poorly understood. We studied the prevalence, diversity, and distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon among resident and migratory birds in Serra do Mar, Brazil.
Malaria is the world's deadliest parasitic disease. Great progress has been made in the fight against malaria over the past two decades, but this has recently begun to plateau, in part due to the global development of antimalarial drug resistance. The ability to track drug resistance is necessary to achieve progress in treatment, disease surveillance and epidemiology, which has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic methods. These new methods provide unprecedented access to information that can help to guide public health policies.
Lactic acidosis and hyperlactatemia are common metabolic disturbances in patients with severe malaria. Lactic acidosis causes physiological adverse effects, which can aggravate the outcome of malaria. Despite its clear association with mortality in malaria patients, the etiology of lactic acidosis is not completely understood. In this review, the possible contributors to lactic acidosis and hyperlactatemia in patients with malaria are discussed. Both increased lactate production and impaired lactate clearance may play a role in the pathogenesis of lactic acidosis.
The metabolic pathways in the apicoplast organelle of Plasmodium parasites are similar to those in plastids in plant cells and are suitable targets for malaria drug discovery. Some phytotoxins released by plant pathogenic fungi have been known to target metabolic pathways of the plastid; thus, they may also serve as potential antimalarial drug leads. An EtOAc extract of the broth of the endophyte Botryosphaeria dothidea isolated from a seed collected from a Torreya taxifolia plant with disease symptoms, showed in vitro antimalarial and phytotoxic activities.
The increasing resistance to currently available insecticides in the malaria vector, Anopheles mosquitoes, hampers their use as an effective vector control strategy for the prevention of malaria transmission. Therefore, there is need for new insecticides and/or alternative vector control strategies, the development of which relies on the identification of possible targets in Anopheles. Some known and promising targets for the prevention or control of malaria transmission exist among Anopheles metabolic proteins.