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NOT Open Access | Epitope masking may limit antibody boosting to malaria vaccines

November 10, 2020 - 13:14 -- NOT Open Access
Kurtovic L, Boyle MJ, Beeson JG
Immunol Cell Biol. 2020 Nov 5

We discuss the study by McNamara et al., who report that low levels of antigen-specific antibodies in serum can limit the boosting of antibody and B-cell responses following immunization with live attenuated malaria sporozoites.

Towards harmonization of microscopy methods for malaria clinical research studies

September 8, 2020 - 11:48 -- Open Access
Mehul Dhorda, El Hadji Ba, Cheikh Sokhna, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:324, 4 September 2020

Microscopy performed on stained films of peripheral blood for detection, identification and quantification of malaria parasites is an essential reference standard for clinical trials of drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests for malaria. The value of data from such research is greatly enhanced if this reference standard is consistent across time and geography. Adherence to common standards and practices is a prerequisite to achieve this.

Evaluation and modeling of direct membrane-feeding assay with Plasmodium vivax to support development of transmission blocking vaccines

July 30, 2020 - 13:29 -- Open Access
Miura K, Swihart BJ, Fay MP, Kumpitak C, Kiattibutr K, Sattabongkot J, Long CA
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 28;10(1):12569

Standard and direct membrane-feeding assays (SMFA and DMFA) are fundamental assays to evaluate efficacy of transmission-blocking intervention (TBI) candidates against Plasmodium falciparum and vivax. To compare different candidates precisely, it is crucial to understand the error range of measured activity, usually expressed as percent inhibition in either oocyst intensity (% transmission reducing activity, %TRA), or in prevalence of infected mosquitoes (% transmission blocking activity, %TBA).

Estimation of the primary, secondary and composite effects of malaria vaccines using data on multiple clinical malaria episodes

June 17, 2020 - 12:49 -- Open Access
Cheung YB, Ma X, Lam KF, Milligan P
Vaccine. 2020 Jun 11:S0264-410X(20)30753-2

An effective malaria vaccine affects the risk of malaria directly, through the vaccine-induced immune response (the primary effect), and indirectly, as a consequence of reduced exposure to malaria infection and disease, leading to slower acquisition of natural immunity (the secondary effect). The beneficial primary effect may be offset by a negative secondary effect, resulting in a smaller or nil composite effect. Reports of malaria vaccine trials usually present only the composite effect. We aimed to demonstrate how the primary and secondary effects can also be estimated from trial data.

NOT Open Access | Whole parasite vaccines for the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium

January 20, 2020 - 15:16 -- NOT Open Access
Good MF, Stanisic DI
Immunological Reviews, Volume293, Issue1 January 2020, Pages 270-282

After many decades of research, an effective vaccine for malaria is still not available. Most research efforts have focused on identifying a key target antigen and then using powerful adjuvants to generate specific antibodies that can block parasites from entering host cells (hepatocytes, red blood cells). However, the inability to generate sufficiently potent antibody responses has led to significant disappointment with current vaccine programs.

Complement in malaria immunity and vaccines

January 20, 2020 - 14:57 -- Open Access
Kurtovic L, Boyle MJ, Opi DH, Kennedy AT, Tham WH, Reiling L, Chan JA, Beeson JG
Immunological Reviews, Volume293, Issue1, January 2020 Pages 38-56

Developing efficacious vaccines for human malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major global health priority, although this has proven to be immensely challenging over the decades. One major hindrance is the incomplete understanding of specific immune responses that confer protection against disease and/or infection. While antibodies to play a crucial role in malaria immunity, the functional mechanisms of these antibodies remain unclear as most research has primarily focused on the direct inhibitory or neutralizing activity of antibodies.

Integrated Cross-Sectional Multiplex Serosurveillance of IgG Antibody Responses to Parasitic Diseases and Vaccines in Coastal Kenya

November 27, 2019 - 16:14 -- Open Access
Njenga SM, Kanyi HM, Arnold BF, Matendechero SH, Onsongo JK, Won KY, Priest JW.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 00(0), 2019, pp. 1–13

Accurate and cost-effective identification of areas where co-endemic infections occur would enable public health managers to identify opportunities for implementation of integrated control programs. Dried blood spots collected during cross-sectional lymphatic filariasis surveys in coastal Kenya were used for exploratory integrated detection of IgG antibodies against antigens from several parasitic infections (Wuchereria bancrofti, Schistosoma mansoni, Plasmodium spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) as well as for detection of responses to immunizing agents used against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) (measles, diphtheria, and tetanus) using a multiplex bead assay (MBA) platform.

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