Malaria is a life-threatening disease being treated by oral medication. This is the best treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality, prevent disease progression to the most severe form, lower the transmission of the disease and hinder the appearance of strains resistant to antimalarials.
Mosquitoes rely heavily on their olfactory systems for host seeking, selection of oviposition sites, and avoiding predators and other environmental dangers. Of these behaviors, the preferential selection of a human blood-meal host drives the vectorial capacity of anthropophilic female Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes. Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are dispersed across several appendages on the head and express an obligate odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) coupled with a "tuning" odorant receptor (OR) to form heteromeric, odor-gated ion channels in the membrane of these neurons.