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NOT Open Access | Plasmodium falciparum Pf77 and male development gene 1 as vaccine antigens that induce potent transmission-reducing antibodies

June 16, 2021 - 14:59 -- NOT Open Access
Tripathi AK, Oakley MS, Kumar S, et al.
Sci Transl Med. 2021 Jun 9;13(597):eabg2112

Malaria vaccines that disrupt the Plasmodium life cycle in mosquitoes and reduce parasite transmission in endemic areas are termed transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs). Despite decades of research, there are only a few Plasmodium falciparum antigens that indisputably and reproducibly demonstrate transmission-blocking immunity. So far, only two TBV candidates have advanced to phase 1/2 clinical testing with limited success.

NOT Open Access | Structural and immunogenicity analysis of reconstructed ancestral and consensus P48/45 for cross-species anti malaria transmission-blocking vaccine

June 9, 2021 - 14:16 -- NOT Open Access
Ramanto KN, Nurdiansyah R
Comput Biol Chem. 2021 Jun;92:107495

The development of the anti-malaria vaccine holds a promising future in malaria control. One of the anti-malaria vaccine strategies known as the transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) is to inhibit the parasite transmission between humans and mosquitoes by targeting the parasite gametocyte. Previously, we found that P48/45 included in the 6-Cysteine protein family shared by Plasmodium sp. We also detected vaccine properties possessed by all human-infecting Plasmodium and could be used as a cross-species anti-malaria vaccine.

Evaluation of two sexual-stage antigens as bivalent transmission-blocking vaccines in rodent malaria

May 12, 2021 - 09:30 -- Open Access
Yang F, Liu F, Yu X, Zheng W, Wu Y, Qiu Y, Jin Y, Cui L, Cao Y
Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 7;14(1):241

Transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) is a promising strategy for malaria elimination. It is hypothesized that mixing or fusing two antigens targeting different stages of sexual development may provide higher transmission-blocking activity than these antigens used individually.

Are malaria transmission-blocking vaccines acceptable to high burden communities? Results from a mixed methods study in Bo, Sierra Leone

April 14, 2021 - 08:11 -- Open Access
Kaci D. McCoy, Caroline T. Weldon, Rashid Ansumana, Joseph M. Lamin, David A. Stenger, Sadie J. Ryan, Kevin Bardosh, Kathryn H. Jacobsen and Rhoel R. Dinglasan
Malaria Journal 2021 20:183, 13 April 2021

Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) could help break the cycle of malaria transmission by conferring community rather than individual protection. When introducing new intervention strategies, uptake is dependent on acceptability, not just efficacy. In this exploratory study on acceptability of TBVs in Sierra Leone, it was hypothesized that TBVs would be largely acceptable to adults and health workers in areas with relatively few ongoing malaria interventions, and that (i) knowledge of malaria and vaccines, (ii) health behaviours associated with malaria and vaccines, and (iii) attitudes towards different vaccines types could lead to greater TBV acceptability.

Immunofocusing humoral immunity potentiates the functional efficacy of the AnAPN1 malaria transmission-blocking vaccine antigen

April 7, 2021 - 12:09 -- Open Access
Bender NG, Khare P, Dinglasan RR, et al.
NPJ Vaccines. 2021 Apr 6;6(1):49

Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) prevent the completion of the developmental lifecycle of malarial parasites within the mosquito vector, effectively blocking subsequent infections. The mosquito midgut protein Anopheline alanyl aminopeptidase N (AnAPN1) is the leading, mosquito-based TBV antigen. Structure-function studies identified two Class II epitopes that can induce potent transmission-blocking (T-B) antibodies, informing the design of the next-generation AnAPN1.

NOT Open Access | Transmission-Blocking Vaccines: Harnessing Herd Immunity for Malaria Elimination

January 27, 2021 - 10:38 -- NOT Open Access
Duffy PE
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2021 Jan 22

Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) prevent community spread of malaria by targeting mosquito sexual stage parasites, a life-cycle bottleneck, and will be used in elimination programs. TBV rely on herd immunity to reduce mosquito infections and thereby new infections in both vaccine recipients and non-recipients, but do not provide protection once an individual receives an infectious mosquito bite which complicates clinical development.

NOT Open Access | Restricted genetic heterogeneity of the Plasmodium vivax transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) candidate Pvs48/45 in a low transmission setting: Implications for the Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine development

January 16, 2021 - 09:16 -- NOT Open Access
Asali S, Raz A, Turki H, Mafakher L, Razmjou E, Solaymani-Mohammadi S
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Jan 6:104710

Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread malaria species parasitizing humans outside Africa, with approximately 100 million cases reported per year. Most human cases of P. vivax are asymptomatic with low parasitemia, making active case detection-based elimination programme challenging and less effective. Despite the widespread distribution of P. vivax, no effective vaccines are currently available. Transmission blocking vaccines have recently emerged as potential vaccine candidates to reduce transmission rates to below the essential levels required for the maintenance of the parasite life cycle.

NOT Open Access | Structural vaccinology of malaria transmission-blocking vaccines

January 13, 2021 - 11:26 -- NOT Open Access
Patel PN, Tolia NH
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2021 Jan 11

The development of effective vaccines remains a major health priority to combat the global burden of malaria, a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) elicit antibodies that neutralize the sexual stages of the parasite in blood meals ingested by the Anopheles mosquito, interrupting parasite development in the vector host and preventing disease spread to other individuals.

Particle-based, Pfs230 and Pfs25 immunization is effective, but not improved by duplexing at fixed total antigen dose

September 1, 2020 - 09:54 -- Open Access
Wei-Chiao Huang, Bingbing Deng, Moustafa T. Mabrouk, Amal Seffouh, Joaquin Ortega, Carole Long, Kazutoyo Miura, Yimin Wu and Jonathan F. Lovell
Malaria Journal 2020 19:309, 28 August 2020

The Plasmodium falciparum sexual-stage surface proteins Pfs25 and Pfs230 are antigen candidates for a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV), and have been widely investigated as such. It is not clear whether simultaneously presenting these two antigens in a particulate vaccine would enhance the transmission reducing activity (TRA) of induced antibodies. To assess this, immunization was carried out with liposomes containing synthetic lipid adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), and cobalt-porphyrin-phospholipid (CoPoP), which rapidly converts recombinant, his-tagged antigens into particles.

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