Heme is a prosthetic group of hemoglobin comprising protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) with Fe2+. Studies have shown that modulating heme synthesis pathway in Plasmodium could greatly affect the action mechanism and antimalarial effect of artemisinin and its derivatives. Herein, an intraerythrocytic parasite targeted nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) was developed for potentiation of artemether (ARM) by combination with PPIX and iron-loaded transferrin (holo-Tf). Firstly, ARM and PPIX were co-loaded into NLCs with high entrapment efficiency.
One-fourth survivors of cerebral malaria (CM) retain long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits. Structural abnormalities in striatum are reported in 80% of children with CM. Dopamine receptors (D1 and D2) are widely expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that regulate critical physiological functions related to behavior and cognition. Dysregulation of dopamine receptors alters the expression of downstream proteins such as dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα), and p25/cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5).