Malaria is a global public health concern and its dynamic transmission is still a complex process. Malaria transmission largely depends on various factors, including demography, geography, vector dynamics, parasite reservoir, and climate. The dynamic behaviour of malaria transmission has been explained using various statistical and mathematical methods. Of them, wavelet analysis is a powerful mathematical technique used in analysing rapidly changing time-series to understand disease processes in a more holistic way.
Identifying highly immunogenic blood stage antigens which can work as target for naturally acquired antibodies in different eco-epidemiological settings is an important step for designing malaria vaccine. Blood stage proteins of Plasmodium vivax, apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) and 19 kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein (PvMSP-119) are such promising vaccine candidate antigens. This study determined the naturally-acquired antibody response to PvAMA-1 and PvMSP-119 antigens in individuals living in three geographically diverse malaria endemic regions of India.
Widespread elimination of malaria requires an ultra-sensitive detection method that can detect low parasitaemia levels seen in asymptomatic carriers who act as reservoirs for further transmission of the disease, but is inexpensive and easy to deploy in the field in low income settings. It was hypothesized that a new method of malaria detection based on infrared spectroscopy, shown in the laboratory to have similar sensitivity to PCR based detection, could prove effective in detecting malaria in a field setting using cheap portable units with data management systems allowing them to be used by users inexpert in spectroscopy. This study was designed to determine whether the methodology developed in the laboratory could be translated to the field to diagnose the presence of Plasmodium in the blood of patients presenting at hospital with symptoms of malaria, as a precursor to trials testing the sensitivity of to detect asymptomatic carriers.