Malaria was first reported in Rwanda in the early 1900s with significant heterogeneity and volatility in transmission over subsequent decades. Here, a comprehensive literature review of malaria transmission patterns and control strategies in Rwanda between 1900 and 2018 is presented to provide insight into successes and challenges in the country and to inform the future of malaria control in Rwanda.
In malaria-endemic countries, febrile episodes caused by diseases other than malaria are a growing concern. However, limited knowledge of the prevalent etiologic agents and their geographic distributions restrict the ability of health services to address non-malarial morbidity and mortality through effective case management. Here, we review the etiology of fever in Latin America (LA) between 1980 and 2015 and map significant pathogens commonly implicated in febrile infectious diseases.
In 2015, a China-UK-Tanzania tripartite pilot project was implemented in southeastern Tanzania to explore a new model for reducing malaria burden and possibly scaling-out the approach into other malaria-endemic countries. The 1,7-malaria Reactive Community-based Testing and Response (1,7-mRCTR) which is a locally-tailored approach for reporting febrile malaria cases in endemic villages was developed to stop transmission and Plasmodium life-cycle. The (1,7-mRCTR) utilizes existing health facility data and locally trained community health workers to conduct community-level testing and treatment.
Malaria control remains a challenge globally and in malaria-endemic countries in particular. In Rwanda, a citizen science programme has been set up to improve malaria control. Citizens are involved in collecting mosquito species and reporting mosquito nuisance. This study assessed what people benefit from such a citizen science programme. The analysis was conducted on how the citizen science programme influenced perceptions and behaviour related to malaria control.