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meta-analysis

Global prevalence and mortality of severe Plasmodium malariae infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

August 4, 2020 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Manas Kotepui, Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui, Giovanni D. Milanez and Frederick R. Masangkay
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:274, 31 July 2020

Severe complications among patients with Plasmodium malariae infection are rare. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrating the global prevalence and mortality of severe P. malariae infection in humans.

Summary of discordant results between rapid diagnosis tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction for detecting Plasmodium mixed infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

July 30, 2020 - 14:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kotepui M, Kotepui KU, De Jesus Milanez G, Masangkay FR
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 29; 10(1):12765

Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used to detect malaria parasites among patients who suspected malaria infections in malaria-endemic areas where microscopy is unavailable. Nevertheless, little is known about the performance of RDTs in detecting Plasmodium mixed infections. The present study aimed to evaluate the discordant results between RDTs and microscopy/polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting Plasmodium mixed infections.

Prevalence of severe Plasmodium knowlesi infection and risk factors related to severe complications compared with non-severe P. knowlesi and severe P. falciparum malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

July 30, 2020 - 14:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kotepui M, Kotepui KU, Milanez GD, Masangkay FR
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Jul 29; 9(1):106

Plasmodium knowlesi is a potential cause of severe and fatal malaria, but comprehensive studies of its pooled prevalence and risk factors are lacking. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and risk factors related to severe P. knowlesi infection.

Severity and mortality of severe Plasmodium ovale infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

June 23, 2020 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kotepui M, Kotepui KU, Milanez GD, Masangkay FR
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(6): e0235014

Plasmodium ovale can infect humans, causing malaria disease. We aimed to investigate the severity and mortality of severe P. ovale infection to increase the awareness of physicians regarding the prognosis of this severe disease and outcome-related deaths in countries in which this disease is endemic. Articles that were published in the PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases prior to January 5, 2020 and reported the prevalence of severe P. ovale infection were systematically searched and reviewed.

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test for diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria in endemic areas: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy

June 22, 2020 - 16:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Denesh Selvarajah, Cho Naing, Norah Htet Htet and Joon Wah Mak
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:211, 19 June 2020

The global malaria decline has stalled and only a few countries are pushing towards pre-elimination. The aim of the malaria elimination phase is interruption of local transmission of a specified malaria parasite in a defined geographical area. New and improved screening tools and strategies are required for detection and management of very low-density parasitaemia in the field. The objective of this study was to synthesize evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test for the detection of malaria parasites among people living in endemic areas.

Factors affecting the electrocardiographic QT interval in malaria: A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data

March 10, 2020 - 16:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chan XHS, Win YN, White NJ, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Mar 5;17(3):e1003040

Electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation is the most widely used risk marker for ventricular arrhythmia potential and thus an important component of drug cardiotoxicity assessments. Several antimalarial medicines are associated with QT interval prolongation. However, interpretation of electrocardiographic changes is confounded by the coincidence of peak antimalarial drug concentrations with recovery from malaria. We therefore reviewed all available data to characterise the effects of malaria disease and demographic factors on the QT interval in order to improve assessment of electrocardiographic changes in the treatment and prevention of malaria.

The duration of chemoprophylaxis against malaria after treatment with artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine and the effects of pfmdr1 86Y and pfcrt 76T: a meta-analysis of individual patient data

March 2, 2020 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bretscher MT, Dahal P, Okell LC, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2020 Feb 25; 18(1):47

The majority of Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Africa are treated with the artemisinin combination therapies artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ), with amodiaquine being also widely used as part of seasonal malaria chemoprevention programs combined with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. While artemisinin derivatives have a short half-life, lumefantrine and amodiaquine may give rise to differing durations of post-treatment prophylaxis, an important additional benefit to patients in higher transmission areas.

Drug-drug Interactions between Lumefantrine and Commonly-used Antiretroviral Treatment: An Individual Participant Data Population Pharmacokinetic Meta-Analysis

February 24, 2020 - 14:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Francis J, Barnes KI, Denti P, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Feb 18. pii: AAC.02394-19

Treating malaria in HIV co-infected individuals should consider potential drug-drug interactions. Artemether-lumefantrine is the most widely recommended treatment for uncomplicated malaria globally. Lumefantrine is metabolized by CYP3A4, an enzyme that commonly-used antiretrovirals often induce or inhibit. A population pharmacokinetic meta-analysis was conducted using individual participant data from ten studies, with 6,100 lumefantrine concentrations from 793 non-pregnant adult participants (41% HIV-malaria co-infected, 36% malaria-infected, 20% HIV-infected, and 3% healthy volunteers).

NOT Open Access | Single dose tafenoquine for preventing relapse in people with plasmodium vivax malaria-an updated meta-analysis

February 14, 2020 - 16:59 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Anjum MU, Naveed AK, Mahmood SN, Naveed OK
Reference: 
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 6:101576

Plasmodium vivax is a frequent cause of recurring malaria in endemic areas as in its latent stage it resides in liver, and is responsible for relapse.

Treatment with 8 aminoquinoline Primaquine is given for 14 days, however studies have shown dismal results with adherence to therapy. A new long acting 8 aminoquinoline, Tafenoquine was introduced that showed efficacy and safety almost similar to Primaquine in a single dose regimen, hence giving hopes for improved compliance and help in eradicating malaria.

Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates with deletions in histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 genes in context with sub-Saharan Africa and India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

February 3, 2020 - 16:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Loick P. Kojom and Vineeta Singh
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:46, 28 January 2020

In 2017, nearly 80% of malaria morbidity and mortality occurred in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and India. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), especially those targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) of Plasmodium falciparum, have become an important diagnostic tool in these malaria-endemic areas. However, the chances of RDT-oriented successful treatment are increasingly jeopardized by the appearance of mutants with deletions in pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. This systematic review and meta-analysis determines the prevalence of field P. falciparum isolates with deletion in pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes and their proportion among false-negative results in the PfHRP2-based RDTs in SSA and India.

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