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mice

Studies on the mitochondrial, immunological and inflammatory effects of solvent fractions of Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

March 30, 2021 - 14:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
David OM, Olanlokun JO, Owoniyi BE, Ayeni M, Ebenezer O, Koorbanally NA
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6941

The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of malaria is gaining global attention due to their efficacy and cost effectiveness. This study evaluated the bioactivity-guided antiplasmodial efficacy and immunomodulatory effects of solvent fractions of Diospyros mespiliformis in mice infected with a susceptible strain of Plasmodium berghei (NK 65). The crude methanol extract of the stem of D. mespiliformis (DM) was partitioned between n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Male Swiss mice (20 ± 2 g) infected with P. berghei were grouped and treated with vehicle (10 mL/kg, control), Artemether lumefantrine (10 mg/kg), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of D. mespiliformis for seven days. Blood was obtained for heme and hemozoin contents while serum was obtained for inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulins G and M assessments.

Adipose tissue parasite sequestration drives leptin production in mice and correlates with human cerebral malaria

March 26, 2021 - 16:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mejia P, Treviño-Villarreal JH, Mitchell JR, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Adv. 2021 Mar 24;7(13):eabe2484

Circulating levels of the adipokine leptin are linked to neuropathology in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), but its source and regulation mechanism remain unknown. Here, we show that sequestration of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in white adipose tissue (WAT) microvasculature increased local vascular permeability and leptin production. Mice infected with parasite strains that fail to sequester in WAT displayed reduced leptin production and protection from ECM.

Antioxidant and antimalarial properties of Sophora exigua Craib. root extract in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

March 24, 2021 - 14:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaewdana K, Chaniad P, Jariyapong P, Phuwajaroanpong A, Punsawad C
Reference: 
Trop Med Health. 2021 Mar 19;49(1):24

Sophora exigua Craib. is commonly used in Thailand to reduce fever and increase postpartum breast milk production in women who have hypogalactia. However, there has been no report on the antioxidant and antimalarial properties of this plant. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and antimalarial activities of S. exigua root extract and to evaluate its acute toxicity in mice to confirm its safety.

Plasmodium infection inhibits triple negative 4T1 breast cancer potentially through induction of CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor responses in mice

March 9, 2021 - 15:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pan J, Ma M, Qin L, Kang Z, Adah D, Tao Z, Li X, Dai L, Zhao S, Chen X, Zhou Q
Reference: 
Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Mar 3;138:111406

We previously reported that Plasmodium infection promotes antitumor immunity in a murine Lewis lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of Plasmodium infection on the tumor inhibition and antitumor CD8+ T cell responses in a murine triple negative breast cancer (TNBCA) model. The results showed that Plasmodium infection significantly inhibited tumor growth, and increased the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice. Both effector and memory CD8+ T cells were increased in peripheral blood and tumor-draining lymph node (DLN) in the infected mice.

NOT Open Access | Perillyl alcohol reduces parasite sequestration and cerebrovascular dysfunction during experimental cerebral malaria

March 4, 2021 - 11:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Marin AA, Murillo O, Sussmann RA, Ortolan LS, Battagello DS, de Castro Quirino T, Bittencourt JC, Epiphanio S, Katzin AM, Carvalho LJM
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Mar 1:AAC.00004-21

Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe immunovasculopathy which presents high mortality rate (15-20%), despite the availability of artemisinin-based therapy. More effective immunomodulatory and/or antiparasitic therapies are urgently needed. Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM) in mice is used to elucidate aspects involved in this pathology since manifests many of the neurological features of CM.

NOT Open Access | Intervention of standardized ethanol leaf extract of Annickia polycarpa, (DC.) Setten and Maas ex I.M. Turner. (Annonaceae), in Plasmodium berghei infested mice produced anti-malaria action and normalized gross hematological indices

March 3, 2021 - 16:49 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kumatia EK, Ayertey F, Appiah-Opong R, Bagyour GK, Asare KO, Mbatcho VC, Dabo J
Reference: 
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Mar 1;267:113449

Malaria is a global public health burden due to large number of annual infections and casualties caused by its hematological complications. The bark of Annickia polycarpa is an effective anti-malaria agent in African traditional medicine. However, there is no standardization parameters for A. polycarpa. The anti-malaria properties of its leaf are also not known.

Xylopic acid-amodiaquine and xylopic acid-artesunate combinations are effective in managing malaria in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

March 3, 2021 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Silas Acheampong Osei, Robert Peter Biney, Ernest Obese, Mary Atta-Panyi Agbenyeku, Isaac Yaw Attah, Elvis Ofori Ameyaw and Johnson Nyarko Boampong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:113, 25 February 2021

Evidence of Plasmodium resistance to some of the current anti-malarial agents makes it imperative to search for newer and effective drugs to combat malaria. Therefore, this study evaluated whether the co-administrations of xylopic acid-amodiaquine and xylopic acid-artesunate combinations will produce a synergistic anti-malarial effect.

Characterization of γδT cells in lung of Plasmodium yoelii-infected C57BL/6 mice

February 16, 2021 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Haixia Wei, Chenxi Jin, Jun Huang, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:89, 15 February 2021

Malaria has high morbidity and mortality rates in some parts of tropical and subtropical countries. Besides respiratory and metabolic function, lung plays a role in immune system. γδT cells have multiple functions in producing cytokines and chemokines, regulating the immune response by interacting with other cells. It remains unclear about the role of γδT cells in the lung of mice infected by malaria parasites.

Dexamethasone increased the survival rate in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

February 2, 2021 - 16:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moreira DR, Uberti ACMG, Gomes ARQ, Ferreira MES, da Silva Barbosa A, Varela ELP, Dolabela MF, Percário S
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 29;11(1):2623

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone on the redox status, parasitemia evolution, and survival rate of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Two-hundred and twenty-five mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei and subjected to stimulation or inhibition of NO synthesis. The stimulation of NO synthesis was performed through the administration of L-arginine, while its inhibition was made by the administration of dexamethasone.

NOT Open Access | Development of Plasmodium-specific liver resident-memory CD8(+) T cells after heat-killed sporozoite immunization in mice

January 27, 2021 - 10:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ghilas S, Enders MH, May R, Holz L, Fernandez-Ruiz D, Cozijnsen A, Mollard V, Cockburn IA, McFadden GI, Heath WR, Beattie L
Reference: 
Eur J Immunol. 2021 Jan 23

Malaria remains a major cause of mortality in the world, and an efficient vaccine is the best chance of reducing the disease burden. Vaccination strategies for the liver stage of disease that utilise injection of living radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) confer sterile immunity, which is mediated by CD8+ memory T cells, with liver-resident memory T cells (TRM ) being particularly important. We have previously described a TCR transgenic mouse, termed PbT-I, where all CD8+ T cells recognize a specific peptide from Plasmodium. PbT-I form liver TRM cells upon RAS injection and are capable of protecting mice against challenge infection.

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