The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of malaria is gaining global attention due to their efficacy and cost effectiveness. This study evaluated the bioactivity-guided antiplasmodial efficacy and immunomodulatory effects of solvent fractions of Diospyros mespiliformis in mice infected with a susceptible strain of Plasmodium berghei (NK 65). The crude methanol extract of the stem of D. mespiliformis (DM) was partitioned between n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Male Swiss mice (20 ± 2 g) infected with P. berghei were grouped and treated with vehicle (10 mL/kg, control), Artemether lumefantrine (10 mg/kg), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of D. mespiliformis for seven days. Blood was obtained for heme and hemozoin contents while serum was obtained for inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulins G and M assessments.
Circulating levels of the adipokine leptin are linked to neuropathology in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), but its source and regulation mechanism remain unknown. Here, we show that sequestration of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in white adipose tissue (WAT) microvasculature increased local vascular permeability and leptin production. Mice infected with parasite strains that fail to sequester in WAT displayed reduced leptin production and protection from ECM.
Sophora exigua Craib. is commonly used in Thailand to reduce fever and increase postpartum breast milk production in women who have hypogalactia. However, there has been no report on the antioxidant and antimalarial properties of this plant. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and antimalarial activities of S. exigua root extract and to evaluate its acute toxicity in mice to confirm its safety.
We previously reported that Plasmodium infection promotes antitumor immunity in a murine Lewis lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of Plasmodium infection on the tumor inhibition and antitumor CD8+ T cell responses in a murine triple negative breast cancer (TNBCA) model. The results showed that Plasmodium infection significantly inhibited tumor growth, and increased the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice. Both effector and memory CD8+ T cells were increased in peripheral blood and tumor-draining lymph node (DLN) in the infected mice.
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe immunovasculopathy which presents high mortality rate (15-20%), despite the availability of artemisinin-based therapy. More effective immunomodulatory and/or antiparasitic therapies are urgently needed. Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM) in mice is used to elucidate aspects involved in this pathology since manifests many of the neurological features of CM.
Malaria is a global public health burden due to large number of annual infections and casualties caused by its hematological complications. The bark of Annickia polycarpa is an effective anti-malaria agent in African traditional medicine. However, there is no standardization parameters for A. polycarpa. The anti-malaria properties of its leaf are also not known.
Evidence of Plasmodium resistance to some of the current anti-malarial agents makes it imperative to search for newer and effective drugs to combat malaria. Therefore, this study evaluated whether the co-administrations of xylopic acid-amodiaquine and xylopic acid-artesunate combinations will produce a synergistic anti-malarial effect.
Malaria has high morbidity and mortality rates in some parts of tropical and subtropical countries. Besides respiratory and metabolic function, lung plays a role in immune system. γδT cells have multiple functions in producing cytokines and chemokines, regulating the immune response by interacting with other cells. It remains unclear about the role of γδT cells in the lung of mice infected by malaria parasites.
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone on the redox status, parasitemia evolution, and survival rate of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Two-hundred and twenty-five mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei and subjected to stimulation or inhibition of NO synthesis. The stimulation of NO synthesis was performed through the administration of L-arginine, while its inhibition was made by the administration of dexamethasone.
Malaria remains a major cause of mortality in the world, and an efficient vaccine is the best chance of reducing the disease burden. Vaccination strategies for the liver stage of disease that utilise injection of living radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) confer sterile immunity, which is mediated by CD8+ memory T cells, with liver-resident memory T cells (TRM ) being particularly important. We have previously described a TCR transgenic mouse, termed PbT-I, where all CD8+ T cells recognize a specific peptide from Plasmodium. PbT-I form liver TRM cells upon RAS injection and are capable of protecting mice against challenge infection.