The development of a blood-stage malaria vaccine has largely focused on the subunit approach. However, the limited success of this strategy, mainly due to antigenic polymorphism and the failure to maintain potent parasite-specific immune responses, indicates that other approaches must be considered. Whole parasite (WP) vaccines offer many advantages over sub-units; they represent every antigen on the organism, thus limiting the effects of antigenic polymorphism, and similarly they compensate for individual Immune-Response (Ir) gene-regulated non-responsiveness to any particular antigen. From a development perspective, they negate the need to identify and compare the relative efficacies of individual candidate antigens. WP vaccines induce protective immunity that is largely cell-mediated.
The immune modulating potential of IL-35 in multiple human disorders has been reported. Consequent upon the recognition of inflammatory cytokine activation and its preponderance for mediating pathology during malaria infection, the study aimed to characterize the expression and functional contribution(s) of IL-35 in Plasmodium berghei (strain ANKA) infected mice.
Tamoxifen is an oestrogen receptor modulator that is widely used for the treatment of early stage breast cancer and reduction of recurrences. Tamoxifen is also used as a powerful research tool for controlling gene expression in the context of the Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system in conditional mutant mice.
Sleeping sickness and malaria are parasitic diseases with overlapping geographical distributions in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that the immune response elicited by an infection with Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of sleeping sickness, would inhibit a subsequent infection by Plasmodium, the malaria parasite, decreasing the severity of its associated pathology.
Cerebral malaria (CM) is the severe neurological complication causing acute non-traumatic encephalopathy in tropical countries.