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Innate immune responses to malaria-infected erythrocytes in pregnant women: Effects of gravidity, malaria infection, and geographic location

July 30, 2020 - 13:35 -- Open Access
Jabbarzare M, Njie M, Jaworowski A, Umbers AJ, Ome-Kaius M, Hasang W, Randall LM, Kalionis B, Rogerson SJ
PLoS ONE 15(7): e0236375

Malaria in pregnancy causes maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and maternal innate immune responses are implicated in pathogenesis of these complications. The effects of malaria exposure and obstetric and demographic factors on the early maternal immune response are poorly understood.

NOT Open Access | Molecular study of binding of Plasmodium ribosomal protein P2 to erythrocytes

July 28, 2020 - 14:09 -- NOT Open Access
Mishra P, Dmello C, Sengupta D, Chandrabhan Singh S, Kirkise N, Hosur RV, Sharma S
Biochimie. 2020 Jul 24:S0300-9084(20)30161-9

The ribosomal protein P2 of Plasmodium falciparum, (PfP2), performs certain unique extra-ribosomal functions. During the few hours of cell-division, PfP2 protein moves to the external surface of the infected erythrocytes (IE) as an SDS-resistant oligomer, and at that stage treatment with specific anti- PfP2 antibodies results in an arrest of the parasite cell-division.

High-efficiency enrichment enables identification of aptamers to circulating Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

June 17, 2020 - 13:06 -- Open Access
Oteng EK, Gu W, McKeague M
Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 16; 10(1):9706

Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the deadliest human malaria. New molecules are needed that can specifically bind to erythrocytes that are infected with P. falciparum for diagnostic purposes, to disrupt host-parasite interactions, or to deliver chemotherapeutics. Aptamer technology has the potential to revolutionize biological diagnostics and therapeutics; however, broad adoption is hindered by the high failure rate of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Here we performed parallel SELEX experiments to compare the impact of two different methods for single-strand recovery on the efficiency of aptamer enrichment.

Adhesion between P. falciparum infected erythrocytes and human endothelial receptors follows alternative binding dynamics under flow and febrile conditions

March 17, 2020 - 16:46 -- Open Access
Lubiana P, Bouws P, Metwally NG, et al.
Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 11;10(1):4548

Characterizing the adhesive dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IEs) to different endothelial cell receptors (ECRs) in flow is a big challenge considering available methods. This study investigated the adhesive dynamics of IEs to five ECRs (CD36, ICAM-1, P-selectin, CD9, CSA) using simulations of in vivo-like flow and febrile conditions.

Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes induce secretion of IGFBP7 to form type II rosettes and escape phagocytosis

February 22, 2020 - 17:21 -- Open Access
Lee WC, Russell B, Sobota RM, Ghaffar K, Howland SW, Wong ZX, Maier AG, Dorin-Semblat D, Biswas S, Gamain B, Lau YL, Malleret B, Chu C, Nosten F, Renia L
Elife. 2020 Feb 18;9. pii: e51546

In malaria, rosetting is described as a phenomenon where an infected erythrocyte (IRBC) is attached to uninfected erythrocytes (URBC). In some studies, rosetting has been associated with malaria pathogenesis. Here, we have identified a new type of rosetting. Using a step-by-step approach, we identified IGFBP7, a protein secreted by monocytes in response to parasite stimulation, as a rosette-stimulator for Plasmodium falciparum- and P. vivax-IRBC. IGFBP7-mediated rosette-stimulation was rapid yet reversible.

Lyse-Reseal Erythrocytes for Transfection of Plasmodium falciparum

January 15, 2020 - 07:56 -- Open Access
Govindarajalu G, Rizvi Z, Kumar D, Sijwali PS
Scientific Reports, 2019 Dec 27; 9(1):19952

Simple and efficient transfection methods for genetic manipulation of Plasmodium falciparum are desirable to identify, characterize and validate the genes with therapeutic potential and better understand parasite biology. Among the available transfection techniques for P. falciparum, electroporation-based methods, particularly electroporation of ring-infected RBCs is routinely used.

In vitro anti-malarial efficacy of chalcones: cytotoxicity profile, mechanism of action and their effect on erythrocytes

December 17, 2019 - 16:41 -- Open Access
Shweta Sinha, Daniela I. Batovska, Bikash Medhi, B. D. Radotra, Ashish Bhalla, Nadezhda Markova and Rakesh Sehgal
Malaria Journal 2019 18:421, 16 December 2019

Malaria extensively leads to mortality and morbidity in endemic regions, and the emergence of drug resistant parasites is alarming. Plant derived synthetic pharmaceutical compounds are found to be a foremost research to obtain diverse range of potent leads. Amongst them, the chalcone scaffold is a functional template for drug discovery. The present study involves synthesis of ten chalcones with various substitution pattern in rings A and B and assessment of their anti-malarial efficacy against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant strains as well as of their cytotoxicity and effect on haemozoin production.

Structural insights into diverse modes of ICAM-1 binding by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

October 8, 2019 - 15:36 -- Open Access
Frank Lennartz, Cameron Smith, Alister G. Craig, and Matthew K. Higgins
PNAS October 1, 2019 116 (40) 20124-20134

A major determinant of pathogenicity in malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is the adhesion of parasite-infected erythrocytes to the vasculature or tissues of infected individuals.

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