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Protein modification characteristics of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the infected erythrocytes

November 7, 2020 - 13:04 -- Open Access
Wang J, Jiang N, Sang X, Yang N, Feng Y, Chen R, Wang X, Chen Q
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2020 Nov 4:mcp.RA120.002375

Malaria elimination is still pending on the development of novel tools that rely on a deep understanding of parasite biology. Proteins of all living cells undergo a myriad number of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that are critical to multifarious life processes. An extensive proteome-wide dissection revealed a fine PTM map of most proteins in both Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe malaria, and the infected red blood cells.

Binding of human serum proteins to Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes and its association with malaria clinical presentation

October 8, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Mary Lopez-Perez, William van der Puije, Filip C. Castberg, Michael F. Ofori and Lars Hviid
Malaria Journal 2020 19:362, 8 October 2020

The pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is related to the ability of parasite‑infected erythrocytes (IEs) to adhere to the vascular endothelium (cytoadhesion/sequestration) or to surrounding uninfected erythrocytes (rosetting). Both processes are mediated by the expression of members of the clonally variant PfEMP1 parasite protein family on the surface of the IEs. Recent evidence obtained with laboratory-adapted clones indicates that P. falciparum can exploit human serum factors, such as IgM and α2-macroglobulin (α2M), to increase the avidity of PfEMP1-mediated binding to erythrocyte receptors, as well as to evade host PfEMP1-specific immune responses. It has remained unclear whether PfEMP1 variants present in field isolates share these characteristics, and whether they are associated with clinical malaria severity. These issues were investigated here.

Quantitative Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Using, LUNA-FL, A Fluorescent Cell Counter

September 10, 2020 - 14:51 -- Open Access
Hashimoto M, Yokota K, Kajimoto K, Matsumoto M, Tatsumi A, Yamamoto K, Hyodo T, Matsushita K, Minakawa N, Mita T, Oka H, Kataoka M
Microorganisms. 2020 Sep 4;8(9):E1356

The microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin and/or thick blood films (Giemsa microscopy) is the standard method of malaria diagnosis. However, the results of the diagnosis significantly depend on the skills of clinical technicians. Furthermore, sample preparation and analysis are laborious and time-consuming. Therefore, in this study, we investigated if a commercially available fluorescent cell counter, LUNA-FL, was useful for the detection of Plasmodium parasite and the estimation of parasitemia.

Human plasma plasminogen internalization route in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

August 27, 2020 - 08:13 -- Open Access
Sarah El Chamy Maluf, Marcelo Yudi Icimoto, Pollyana Maria Saud Melo, Alexandre Budu, Rita Coimbra, Marcos Leoni Gazarini and Adriana Karaoglanovic Carmona
Malaria Journal 2020 19:302, 26 August 2020

The intra-erythrocytic development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on the uptake of a number of essential nutrients from the host cell and blood plasma. It is widely recognized that the parasite imports low molecular weight solutes from the plasma and the consumption of these nutrients by P. falciparum has been extensively analysed. However, although it was already shown that the parasite also imports functional proteins from the vertebrate host, the internalization route through the different infected erythrocyte membranes has not yet been elucidated. In order to further understand the uptake mechanism, the study examined the trafficking of human plasminogen from the extracellular medium into P. falciparum-infected red blood cells.

CXCR4 and MIF are required for neutrophil extracellular trap release triggered by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes

August 18, 2020 - 14:57 -- Open Access
Rodrigues DAS, Prestes EB, Bozza MT, et al.
PLoS Pathog. 2020 Aug 14;16(8):e1008230

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) evolved as a unique effector mechanism contributing to resistance against infection that can also promote tissue damage in inflammatory conditions. Malaria infection can trigger NET release, but the mechanisms and consequences of NET formation in this context remain poorly characterized.

Innate immune responses to malaria-infected erythrocytes in pregnant women: Effects of gravidity, malaria infection, and geographic location

July 30, 2020 - 13:35 -- Open Access
Jabbarzare M, Njie M, Jaworowski A, Umbers AJ, Ome-Kaius M, Hasang W, Randall LM, Kalionis B, Rogerson SJ
PLoS ONE 15(7): e0236375

Malaria in pregnancy causes maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and maternal innate immune responses are implicated in pathogenesis of these complications. The effects of malaria exposure and obstetric and demographic factors on the early maternal immune response are poorly understood.

NOT Open Access | Molecular study of binding of Plasmodium ribosomal protein P2 to erythrocytes

July 28, 2020 - 14:09 -- NOT Open Access
Mishra P, Dmello C, Sengupta D, Chandrabhan Singh S, Kirkise N, Hosur RV, Sharma S
Biochimie. 2020 Jul 24:S0300-9084(20)30161-9

The ribosomal protein P2 of Plasmodium falciparum, (PfP2), performs certain unique extra-ribosomal functions. During the few hours of cell-division, PfP2 protein moves to the external surface of the infected erythrocytes (IE) as an SDS-resistant oligomer, and at that stage treatment with specific anti- PfP2 antibodies results in an arrest of the parasite cell-division.

High-efficiency enrichment enables identification of aptamers to circulating Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

June 17, 2020 - 13:06 -- Open Access
Oteng EK, Gu W, McKeague M
Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 16; 10(1):9706

Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the deadliest human malaria. New molecules are needed that can specifically bind to erythrocytes that are infected with P. falciparum for diagnostic purposes, to disrupt host-parasite interactions, or to deliver chemotherapeutics. Aptamer technology has the potential to revolutionize biological diagnostics and therapeutics; however, broad adoption is hindered by the high failure rate of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Here we performed parallel SELEX experiments to compare the impact of two different methods for single-strand recovery on the efficiency of aptamer enrichment.

Adhesion between P. falciparum infected erythrocytes and human endothelial receptors follows alternative binding dynamics under flow and febrile conditions

March 17, 2020 - 16:46 -- Open Access
Lubiana P, Bouws P, Metwally NG, et al.
Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 11;10(1):4548

Characterizing the adhesive dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IEs) to different endothelial cell receptors (ECRs) in flow is a big challenge considering available methods. This study investigated the adhesive dynamics of IEs to five ECRs (CD36, ICAM-1, P-selectin, CD9, CSA) using simulations of in vivo-like flow and febrile conditions.

Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes induce secretion of IGFBP7 to form type II rosettes and escape phagocytosis

February 22, 2020 - 17:21 -- Open Access
Lee WC, Russell B, Sobota RM, Ghaffar K, Howland SW, Wong ZX, Maier AG, Dorin-Semblat D, Biswas S, Gamain B, Lau YL, Malleret B, Chu C, Nosten F, Renia L
Elife. 2020 Feb 18;9. pii: e51546

In malaria, rosetting is described as a phenomenon where an infected erythrocyte (IRBC) is attached to uninfected erythrocytes (URBC). In some studies, rosetting has been associated with malaria pathogenesis. Here, we have identified a new type of rosetting. Using a step-by-step approach, we identified IGFBP7, a protein secreted by monocytes in response to parasite stimulation, as a rosette-stimulator for Plasmodium falciparum- and P. vivax-IRBC. IGFBP7-mediated rosette-stimulation was rapid yet reversible.


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