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Increase in the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum with kelch13 C580Y mutation and decline in pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutant alleles in Papua New Guinea

October 30, 2021 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Naoko Yoshida, Masato Yamauchi, Ryosuke Morikawa, Francis Hombhanje and Toshihiro Mita
Malaria Journal 2021 20:410, 19 October 2021

The C580Y mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 gene is the most commonly observed variant in artemisinin-resistant isolates in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Until 2017, it had not been identified outside the GMS, except for Guyana/Amazonia. In 2017, three parasites carrying the C580Y mutation were identified in Papua New Guinea (PNG). As the C580Y allele rapidly spread in the GMS, there is concern that this mutant is now spreading in PNG.

NOT Open Access | Mutations in Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from two sites in Northcentral and Southwest Nigeria

August 25, 2021 - 16:56 -- NOT Open Access
Agomo CO, Mishra N, Olukosi YA, Gupta R, Kamlesh K, Aina OO, Awolola ST
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Aug 19:105042

The ability of malaria parasites to develop resistance to antimalarial drugs has made it necessary to continuously survey malaria parasite populations for resistance markers. Mutations in specific malaria parasite genes confer resistance to antimalarial drugs. The study compared mutations in Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes of P. falciparum from two ecologically different areas of Nigeria. Plasmodium falciparum dried blood spots collected from New Bussa (Northcentral Nigeria) and Ijede (Southwest Nigeria) were analysed by PCR-RFLP for Pfcrt, K76 T, Pfmdr1, N86Y and Y184F mutations.

NOT Open Access | Changing Pattern of Plasmodium falciparum pfmdr1 Gene Polymorphisms in Southern Rwanda

August 18, 2021 - 17:02 -- NOT Open Access
van Loon W, Bergmann C, Habarugira F, Tacoli C, Savelsberg D, Oliveira R, Mbarushimana D, Ndoli J, Sendegeya A, Bayingana C, Mockenhaupt FP
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Aug 17;65(9):e0090121

Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-1 gene (pfmdr1) polymorphisms associate with altered antimalarial susceptibility. Between 2010 and 2018/2019, we observed that the prevalence of the wild-type allele N86 and the wild-type combination NYD increased 10-fold (4% versus 40%) and more than 2-fold (18% versus 44%), respectively.

NOT Open Access | Molecular Detection of Mutations in the Propeller Domain of Kelch 13 and pfmdr1 Copy Number Variation in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Thailand Collected from 2002 to 2007

July 21, 2021 - 17:03 -- NOT Open Access
Chaisatit C, Sai-Ngam P, Thaloengsok S, Sriwichai S, Jongsakul K, Fukuda M, Spring M, Wojnarski M, Waters N, Lertsethtakarn P, Vesely BA
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 16:tpmd210303

We determined the prevalence of Kelch 13 mutations and pfmdr1 copy number in samples collected from the Thailand-Myanmar border, the Thailand-Cambodia border, and southern Thailand from 2002 to 2007.

Balanced impacts of fitness and drug pressure on the evolution of PfMDR1 polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum

July 7, 2021 - 07:56 -- Open Access
Marvin Duvalsaint, Melissa D. Conrad, Stephen Tukwasibwe, Patrick K. Tumwebaze, Jennifer Legac, Roland A. Cooper and Philip J. Rosenthal
Malaria Journal 2021 20:292, 30 June 2021

Anti-malarial drug resistance may be limited by decreased fitness in resistant parasites. Important contributors to resistance are mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum putative drug transporter PfMDR1.

Prevalence of pfk13 and pfmdr1 polymorphisms in Bounkiling, Southern Senegal

March 31, 2021 - 14:26 -- Open Access
Ahouidi A, Oliveira R, Lobo L, Diedhiou C, Mboup S, Nogueira F
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 26;16(3):e0249357

Delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance has been associated with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the kelch protein propeller domain (coded by pfk13 gene). SNPs in the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) are associated with multi-drug resistance including the combination artemether-lumefantrine. To our knowledge, this is the first work providing information on the prevalence of k13-propeller and pfmdr1 mutations from Sédhiou, a region in the south of Senegal.

Expansion of a Specific Plasmodium falciparum PfMDR1 Haplotype in Southeast Asia with Increased Substrate Transport

December 3, 2020 - 13:33 -- Open Access
Calçada C, Silva M, Baptista V, Thathy V, Silva-Pedrosa R, Granja D, Ferreira PE, Gil JP, Fidock DA, Veiga MI
mBio. 2020 Dec 1;11(6):e02093-20

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been vital in reducing malaria mortality rates since the 2000s. Their efficacy, however, is threatened by the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. The Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 1 (PfMDR1) transporter plays a central role in parasite resistance to ACT partner drugs through gene copy number variations (CNV) and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using genomic epidemiology, we show that multiple pfmdr1 copies encoding the N86 and 184F haplotype are prevalent across Southeast Asia.

Polymorphisms of pfcrt, pfmdr1, and K13-propeller genes in imported falciparum malaria isolates from Africa in Guizhou province, China

July 20, 2020 - 15:28 -- Open Access
She D, Wang Z, Liang Q, Lu L, Huang Y, Zhang K, An D, Wu J
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 16;20(1):513

Imported falciparum malaria from Africa has become a key public health challenge in Guizhou Province since 2012. Understanding the polymorphisms of molecular markers of drug resistance can guide selection of antimalarial drugs for the treatment of malaria. This study was aimed to analyze the polymorphisms of pfcrt, pfmdr1, and K13-propeller among imported falciparum malaria cases in Guizhou Province, China.

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