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indoor residual spraying

Factors associated with malaria infection in Mudzi District, Mashonaland East Zimbabwe, 2019: a case-control study

November 25, 2020 - 11:59 -- Open Access
Masango TT, Nyadzayo TK, Gombe NT, Juru TP, Shambira G, Chiwanda S, Tshimanga MT
BMC Public Health. 2020 Nov 19;20(1):1745

Kondo Rural Health Centre recorded 27 malaria patients between the 27th of January 2019 and the 2nd of February 2019 against an epidemic threshold of 19 with the malaria outbreak being confirmed on the 5th of February 2019. Indoor residual spraying as part of integrated vector management control activities had been done in the district before the onset of the rainy season as well as social behaviour change communication but residents were contracting malaria. We, therefore, investigated the risk factors associated with this outbreak to recommend scientifically effective prevention and control measures.

Multiple insecticide resistance target sites in adult field strains of An. gambiae (s.l.) from southeastern Senegal

November 14, 2020 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Diouf EH, Niang EHA, Samb B, Diagne CT, Diouf M, Konaté A, Dia I, Faye O, Konaté L
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Nov 11;13(1):567

High coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of vector control strategy in Senegal where insecticide resistance by the target vectors species is a great of concern. This study explores insecticide susceptibility profile and target-site mutations mechanisms within the Anopheles gambiae complex in southeastern Senegal.

Estimating the optimal interval between rounds of indoor residual spraying of insecticide using malaria incidence data from cohort studies

October 28, 2020 - 09:25 -- Open Access
Mugenyi L, Nankabirwa JI, Arinaitwe E, Rek J, Hens N, Kamya M, Dorsey G
PLoS One. 2020 Oct 23;15(10):e0241033

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduces vector densities and malaria transmission, however, the most effective spraying intervals for IRS have not been well established. We estimated the optimal timing interval for IRS using a statistical approach.

Rapid reduction of malaria transmission following the introduction of indoor residual spraying in previously unsprayed districts: an observational analysis of Mopti Region, Mali, in 2017

September 22, 2020 - 10:18 -- Open Access
Joseph Wagman, Idrissa Cissé, Molly Robertson, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:340, 19 September 2020

The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) of Mali has had recent success decreasing malaria transmission using 3rd generation indoor residual spraying (IRS) products in areas with pyrethroid resistance, primarily in Ségou and Koulikoro Regions. In 2015, national survey data showed that Mopti Region had the highest under 5-year-old (u5) malaria prevalence at 54%—nearly twice the national average—despite having high access to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC). Accordingly, in 2016 the NMCP and other stakeholders shifted IRS activities from Ségou to Mopti. Here, the results of a series of observational analyses utilizing routine malaria indicators to evaluate the impact of this switch are presented.

Efficacy of Fludora® Fusion (a mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin) for indoor residual spraying against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors: laboratory and experimental hut evaluation

September 15, 2020 - 14:28 -- Open Access
Fongnikin A, Houeto N, Agbevo A, Odjo A, Syme T, N'Guessan R, Ngufor C
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Sep 11;13(1):466

A new generation of IRS insecticides which can provide improved and prolonged control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector populations are being developed. Fludora® Fusion is a new IRS insecticide containing a mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin, a neonicotinoid.

Combining next-generation indoor residual spraying and drug-based malaria control strategies: observational evidence of a combined effect in Mali

August 17, 2020 - 13:39 -- Open Access
Joseph Wagman, Idrissa Cissé, Molly Robertson, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:293, 15 August 2020

Ségou Region in central Mali is an area of high malaria burden with seasonal transmission. The region reports high access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), though the principal vector, Anopheles gambiae, is resistant to pyrethroids. From 2011 until 2016, several high-burden districts of Ségou also received indoor residual spraying (IRS), though in 2014 concerns about pyrethroid resistance prompted a shift in IRS products to a micro-encapsulated formulation of the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. Also in 2014, the region expanded a pilot programme to provide seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) to children aged 3–59 months in two districts. The timing of these decisions presented an opportunity to estimate the impact of both interventions, deployed individually and in combination, using quality-assured passive surveillance data.

NOT Open Access | Malaria Transmission, Infection, and Disease following Sustained Indoor Residual Spraying of Insecticide in Tororo, Uganda

July 27, 2020 - 12:16 -- NOT Open Access
Nankabirwa JI, Arinaitwe E, Dorsey G, et al.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 20

Tororo, a district in Uganda with historically high malaria transmission intensity, has recently scaled up control interventions, including universal long-lasting insecticidal net distribution in 2013 and 2017, and sustained indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide since December 2014. We describe the burden of malaria in Tororo 5 years following the initiation of IRS.

High insecticide resistances levels in Anopheles gambiaes s.l. in northern Uganda and its relevance for future malaria control

July 26, 2020 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Echodu R, Iga J, Oyet WS, Mireji P, Anena J, Onanyang D, Iwiru T, Lutwama JJ, Opiyo EA
BMC Res Notes. 2020 Jul 22;13(1):348

The aim of the study was to determine the level of insecticide resistance and diversity in Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Uganda. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility test assays were used to test for susceptibility to 0.5% malathion, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.05% deltamethrin and 0.75% permethrin on 3–5 day old generation one progeny. We also screened for species diversity and knockdown resistance using PCR assay.

An observational analysis of the impact of indoor residual spraying in Northern, Upper East, and Upper West Regions of Ghana: 2014 through 2017

July 14, 2020 - 09:22 -- Open Access
Christelle Gogue, Joseph Wagman, Molly Robertson, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:242, 11 July 2020

Ghana has been implementing the indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides since 2006, focusing operations in the north. Insecticide resistance concerns prompted a switch from pyrethroids to organophosphates, beginning gradually in 2011 and switching fully to the micro-encapsulated formulation of pirimiphosmethyl (PM CS), Actellic® 300CS, a third-generation indoor residual spraying (3GIRS) product, by 2014. Entomological surveillance studies have shown IRS to be a highly effective malaria control tool, but epidemiological evidence is needed as well. Countrywide prevalence surveys have shown that malaria parasite prevalence in children under 5 years of age in Northern, Upper East, and Upper West Regions had declined to less than 40% in each region by 2016. Similarly, malaria deaths in children under 5 years of age have also been declining nationally since 2009. Although IRS is suspected to have contributed to this decline, stronger evidence is needed to link the IRS interventions to the epidemiological impact.

NOT Open Access | Insecticide resistance and malaria control: A genetics-epidemiology modeling approach

July 13, 2020 - 15:49 -- NOT Open Access
Mohammed-Awel J, Iboi EA, Gumel AB
Math Biosci. 2020 Jul;325:108368

Malaria, a deadly infectious disease caused by the protozoan Plasmodium, remains a major public health menace affecting at least half the human race. Although the large-scale usage of insecticides-based control measures, notably long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), have led to a dramatic reduction of the burden of this global scourge between the period 2000 to 2015, the fact that the malaria vector (adult female Anopheles mosquito) has become resistant to all currently-available insecticides potentially makes the current laudable global effort to eradicate malaria by 2040 more challenging.


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