Kondo Rural Health Centre recorded 27 malaria patients between the 27th of January 2019 and the 2nd of February 2019 against an epidemic threshold of 19 with the malaria outbreak being confirmed on the 5th of February 2019. Indoor residual spraying as part of integrated vector management control activities had been done in the district before the onset of the rainy season as well as social behaviour change communication but residents were contracting malaria. We, therefore, investigated the risk factors associated with this outbreak to recommend scientifically effective prevention and control measures.
indoor residual spraying
High coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of vector control strategy in Senegal where insecticide resistance by the target vectors species is a great of concern. This study explores insecticide susceptibility profile and target-site mutations mechanisms within the Anopheles gambiae complex in southeastern Senegal.
Indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduces vector densities and malaria transmission, however, the most effective spraying intervals for IRS have not been well established. We estimated the optimal timing interval for IRS using a statistical approach.
The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) of Mali has had recent success decreasing malaria transmission using 3rd generation indoor residual spraying (IRS) products in areas with pyrethroid resistance, primarily in Ségou and Koulikoro Regions. In 2015, national survey data showed that Mopti Region had the highest under 5-year-old (u5) malaria prevalence at 54%—nearly twice the national average—despite having high access to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC). Accordingly, in 2016 the NMCP and other stakeholders shifted IRS activities from Ségou to Mopti. Here, the results of a series of observational analyses utilizing routine malaria indicators to evaluate the impact of this switch are presented.
A new generation of IRS insecticides which can provide improved and prolonged control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector populations are being developed. Fludora® Fusion is a new IRS insecticide containing a mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin, a neonicotinoid.
Ségou Region in central Mali is an area of high malaria burden with seasonal transmission. The region reports high access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), though the principal vector, Anopheles gambiae, is resistant to pyrethroids. From 2011 until 2016, several high-burden districts of Ségou also received indoor residual spraying (IRS), though in 2014 concerns about pyrethroid resistance prompted a shift in IRS products to a micro-encapsulated formulation of the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. Also in 2014, the region expanded a pilot programme to provide seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) to children aged 3–59 months in two districts. The timing of these decisions presented an opportunity to estimate the impact of both interventions, deployed individually and in combination, using quality-assured passive surveillance data.
Tororo, a district in Uganda with historically high malaria transmission intensity, has recently scaled up control interventions, including universal long-lasting insecticidal net distribution in 2013 and 2017, and sustained indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide since December 2014. We describe the burden of malaria in Tororo 5 years following the initiation of IRS.
The aim of the study was to determine the level of insecticide resistance and diversity in Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Uganda. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility test assays were used to test for susceptibility to 0.5% malathion, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.05% deltamethrin and 0.75% permethrin on 3–5 day old generation one progeny. We also screened for species diversity and knockdown resistance using PCR assay.
Ghana has been implementing the indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides since 2006, focusing operations in the north. Insecticide resistance concerns prompted a switch from pyrethroids to organophosphates, beginning gradually in 2011 and switching fully to the micro-encapsulated formulation of pirimiphosmethyl (PM CS), Actellic® 300CS, a third-generation indoor residual spraying (3GIRS) product, by 2014. Entomological surveillance studies have shown IRS to be a highly effective malaria control tool, but epidemiological evidence is needed as well. Countrywide prevalence surveys have shown that malaria parasite prevalence in children under 5 years of age in Northern, Upper East, and Upper West Regions had declined to less than 40% in each region by 2016. Similarly, malaria deaths in children under 5 years of age have also been declining nationally since 2009. Although IRS is suspected to have contributed to this decline, stronger evidence is needed to link the IRS interventions to the epidemiological impact.
Malaria, a deadly infectious disease caused by the protozoan Plasmodium, remains a major public health menace affecting at least half the human race. Although the large-scale usage of insecticides-based control measures, notably long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), have led to a dramatic reduction of the burden of this global scourge between the period 2000 to 2015, the fact that the malaria vector (adult female Anopheles mosquito) has become resistant to all currently-available insecticides potentially makes the current laudable global effort to eradicate malaria by 2040 more challenging.