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indoor residual spraying

Rapid reduction of malaria transmission following the introduction of indoor residual spraying in previously unsprayed districts: an observational analysis of Mopti Region, Mali, in 2017

September 22, 2020 - 10:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joseph Wagman, Idrissa Cissé, Molly Robertson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:340, 19 September 2020

The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) of Mali has had recent success decreasing malaria transmission using 3rd generation indoor residual spraying (IRS) products in areas with pyrethroid resistance, primarily in Ségou and Koulikoro Regions. In 2015, national survey data showed that Mopti Region had the highest under 5-year-old (u5) malaria prevalence at 54%—nearly twice the national average—despite having high access to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC). Accordingly, in 2016 the NMCP and other stakeholders shifted IRS activities from Ségou to Mopti. Here, the results of a series of observational analyses utilizing routine malaria indicators to evaluate the impact of this switch are presented.

Efficacy of Fludora® Fusion (a mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin) for indoor residual spraying against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors: laboratory and experimental hut evaluation

September 15, 2020 - 14:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fongnikin A, Houeto N, Agbevo A, Odjo A, Syme T, N'Guessan R, Ngufor C
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Sep 11;13(1):466

A new generation of IRS insecticides which can provide improved and prolonged control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector populations are being developed. Fludora® Fusion is a new IRS insecticide containing a mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin, a neonicotinoid.

Combining next-generation indoor residual spraying and drug-based malaria control strategies: observational evidence of a combined effect in Mali

August 17, 2020 - 13:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joseph Wagman, Idrissa Cissé, Molly Robertson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:293, 15 August 2020

Ségou Region in central Mali is an area of high malaria burden with seasonal transmission. The region reports high access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), though the principal vector, Anopheles gambiae, is resistant to pyrethroids. From 2011 until 2016, several high-burden districts of Ségou also received indoor residual spraying (IRS), though in 2014 concerns about pyrethroid resistance prompted a shift in IRS products to a micro-encapsulated formulation of the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. Also in 2014, the region expanded a pilot programme to provide seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) to children aged 3–59 months in two districts. The timing of these decisions presented an opportunity to estimate the impact of both interventions, deployed individually and in combination, using quality-assured passive surveillance data.

NOT Open Access | Malaria Transmission, Infection, and Disease following Sustained Indoor Residual Spraying of Insecticide in Tororo, Uganda

July 27, 2020 - 12:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nankabirwa JI, Arinaitwe E, Dorsey G, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 20

Tororo, a district in Uganda with historically high malaria transmission intensity, has recently scaled up control interventions, including universal long-lasting insecticidal net distribution in 2013 and 2017, and sustained indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide since December 2014. We describe the burden of malaria in Tororo 5 years following the initiation of IRS.

High insecticide resistances levels in Anopheles gambiaes s.l. in northern Uganda and its relevance for future malaria control

July 26, 2020 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Echodu R, Iga J, Oyet WS, Mireji P, Anena J, Onanyang D, Iwiru T, Lutwama JJ, Opiyo EA
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2020 Jul 22;13(1):348

The aim of the study was to determine the level of insecticide resistance and diversity in Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Uganda. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility test assays were used to test for susceptibility to 0.5% malathion, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.05% deltamethrin and 0.75% permethrin on 3–5 day old generation one progeny. We also screened for species diversity and knockdown resistance using PCR assay.

An observational analysis of the impact of indoor residual spraying in Northern, Upper East, and Upper West Regions of Ghana: 2014 through 2017

July 14, 2020 - 09:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Christelle Gogue, Joseph Wagman, Molly Robertson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:242, 11 July 2020

Ghana has been implementing the indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides since 2006, focusing operations in the north. Insecticide resistance concerns prompted a switch from pyrethroids to organophosphates, beginning gradually in 2011 and switching fully to the micro-encapsulated formulation of pirimiphosmethyl (PM CS), Actellic® 300CS, a third-generation indoor residual spraying (3GIRS) product, by 2014. Entomological surveillance studies have shown IRS to be a highly effective malaria control tool, but epidemiological evidence is needed as well. Countrywide prevalence surveys have shown that malaria parasite prevalence in children under 5 years of age in Northern, Upper East, and Upper West Regions had declined to less than 40% in each region by 2016. Similarly, malaria deaths in children under 5 years of age have also been declining nationally since 2009. Although IRS is suspected to have contributed to this decline, stronger evidence is needed to link the IRS interventions to the epidemiological impact.

NOT Open Access | Insecticide resistance and malaria control: A genetics-epidemiology modeling approach

July 13, 2020 - 15:49 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mohammed-Awel J, Iboi EA, Gumel AB
Reference: 
Math Biosci. 2020 Jul;325:108368

Malaria, a deadly infectious disease caused by the protozoan Plasmodium, remains a major public health menace affecting at least half the human race. Although the large-scale usage of insecticides-based control measures, notably long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), have led to a dramatic reduction of the burden of this global scourge between the period 2000 to 2015, the fact that the malaria vector (adult female Anopheles mosquito) has become resistant to all currently-available insecticides potentially makes the current laudable global effort to eradicate malaria by 2040 more challenging.

COVID-19 and the impact on malaria

June 2, 2020 - 09:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chiodini J
Reference: 
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 May 29:101758

As COVID -19 continues to dominate the health and political agendas in so many countries around the world, so does its devastating impact on other diseases become apparent. Malaria is just one of these.

Indoor residual spraying for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa 1997 to 2017: an adjusted retrospective analysis

April 13, 2020 - 15:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Julie-Anne A. Tangena, Chantal M. J. Hendriks, Catherine L. Moyes, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:150, 10 April 2020

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a key tool for controlling and eliminating malaria by targeting vectors. To support the development of effective intervention strategies it is important to understand the impact of vector control tools on malaria incidence and on the spread of insecticide resistance. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that countries should report on coverage and impact of IRS, yet IRS coverage data are still sparse and unspecific. Here, the subnational coverage of IRS across sub-Saharan Africa for the four main insecticide classes from 1997 to 2017 were estimated.

An exploratory study of the acceptability of indoor residual spraying for malaria control in upper western Ghana

April 10, 2020 - 16:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Suuron VM, Mwanri L, Tsourtos G, Owusu-Addo E
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2020 Apr 6;20(1):465

Despite the implementation of the World Health Organisation’s recommended indoor residual spraying (IRS) intervention in the upper west region of Ghana to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality, the uptake of this intervention remains low. This study explores the facilitators and barriers to the acceptability and community uptake of indoor residual spraying in a highly endemic region of Ghana.

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