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Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Facts, Fiction & the Hype. A Critical Appraisal

July 21, 2020 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Khuroo MS, Sofi AA, Khuroo M
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Jul 17:106101

The coronavirus infection (COVID-19) has turned in to a global catastrophe and there is an intense search for effective drug therapy. Of all the potential therapies, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been the focus of tremendous public attention. Both drugs have been used in the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria and long-term use of hydroxychloroquine is the cornerstone in the treatment of several auto-immune disorders.

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis Influences Artemisia annua Plant Parameters and Artemisinin Content under Different Soil Types and Cultivation Methods

June 18, 2020 - 11:04 -- Open Access
Domokos E, Bíró-Janka B, Bálint J, Molnár K, Fazakas C, Jakab-Farkas L, Domokos J, Albert C, Mara G, Balog A
Microorganisms. 2020 Jun 15; 8(6):E899

Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua has been used efficiently in malaria treatment since 2005. In this study, the variations in plant parameters (plant biomass, glandular trichome density, essential oil total chemical content, artemisinin production, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity) were tested under different soil types (Luvisol, Gleysol, Anthrosol and sterile peat) and cultivation conditions (potted plants in semi-open field, and open field experiments) for plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rizophagus irregularis.

NOT Open Access | Ethnopharmacology-aided antiplasmodial evaluation of six selected plants used for malaria treatment in Nigeria

March 2, 2020 - 14:39 -- NOT Open Access
Ezenyi IC, Verma V, Singh S, Okhale SE, Adzu B
J Ethnopharmacol. 2020 Feb 21:112694

Sub – Saharan Africa has a high malaria burden and Nigeria accounts for majority of malaria cases worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate selected plants extracts used against malaria in Nigeria for antiplasmodial activity.

Usefulness of day 7 lumefantrine plasma concentration as a predictor of malaria treatment outcome in under-fives children treated with artemether-lumefantrine in Tanzania

February 14, 2020 - 16:51 -- Open Access
Manase Kilonzi, Omary Minzi, Ritah Mutagonda, Vito Baraka, Philip Sasi, Eleni Aklillu and Appolinary Kamuhabwa
Malaria Journal 2020 19:66, 11 February 2020

Day 7 plasma lumefantrine concentration is suggested as a predictor for malaria treatment outcomes and a cut-off of ≥ 200 ng/ml is associated with day 28 cure rate in the general population. However, day 7 lumefantrine plasma concentration can be affected by age, the extent of fever, baseline parasitaemia, and bodyweight. Therefore, this study assessed the usefulness of day 7 lumefantrine plasma concentration as a predictor of malaria treatment outcome in under-fives children treated with generic or innovator drug-containing artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) in Tanzania.

Prevalence and distribution of G6PD deficiency: implication for the use of primaquine in malaria treatment in Ethiopia

October 8, 2019 - 14:57 -- Open Access
Eugenia Lo, Daibin Zhong, Beka Raya, Kareen Pestana, Cristian Koepfli, Ming-Chieh Lee, Delenasaw Yewhalaw and Guiyun Yan
Malaria Journal 2019 18:340, 7 October 2019

G6PD enzyme deficiency is a common enzymatic X-linked disorder. Deficiency of the G6PD enzyme can cause free radical-mediated oxidative damage to red blood cells, leading to premature haemolysis. Treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria with primaquine poses a potential risk of mild to severe acute haemolytic anaemia in G6PD deficient people. In this study, the prevalence and distribution of G6PD mutations were investigated across broad areas of Ethiopia, and tested the association between G6PD genotype and phenotype with the goal to provide additional information relevant to the use of primaquine in malaria treatment.

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