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Gambia

Understanding adherence to reactive treatment of asymptomatic malaria infections in The Gambia

January 20, 2021 - 07:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jaiteh F, Okebe J, Masunaga Y, D'Alessandro U, Achan J, Gryseels C, de Vries D, Ribera JM, Grietens KP
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 18;11(1):1746

The impact of different types of reactive case detection and/or treatment strategies for malaria elimination depends on high coverage and participants' adherence. However, strategies to optimise adherence are limited, particularly for people with asymptomatic or no infections. As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the effect of reactive treatment in The Gambia, all residents in the compound of a diagnosed clinical malaria patient received dihydro-artemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Using a mixed method approach, we assessed which factors contribute to adherence among the contacts of malaria cases that showed no symptoms.

Adoption of evidence-based global policies at the national level: intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and first trimester treatment in Kenya, Malawi, Mali and The Gambia

November 14, 2020 - 16:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Webster J, Hoyt J, Hill J, et al.
Reference: 
Health Policy Plan. 2020 Nov 12:czaa132

In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated its policy on intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). A global recommendation to revise the WHO policy on the treatment of malaria in the first trimester is under review. We conducted a retrospective study of the national policy adoption process for revised IPTp-SP dosing in four sub-Saharan African countries.

NOT Open Access | Artemisinin Activity in Red Blood Cells from Anemic Children

November 11, 2020 - 14:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Joof F, Goheen MM, Cerami C
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Nov 9

Artemisinin combination therapies are the current frontline therapy for falciparum malaria. Artemisinin is activated by heme iron, and the consequent production of reactive oxygen species and carbon-centered radicals results in rapid parasite clearance. Red blood cells (RBCs) from anemic iron-deficient individuals have decreased levels of heme, and such deficiencies are highly prevalent among children and pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries.

Tolerance of Gambian Plasmodium falciparum to Dihydroartemisinin and Lumefantrine detected by Ex vivo Parasite Survival Rate Assay (PSRA)

October 7, 2020 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mbye H, Bojang F, Jawara AS, Njie B, Mohammed NI, Okebe J, D'Alessandro U, Amambua-Ngwa A
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Oct 5:AAC.00720-20

Monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to antimalarial drugs in Africa is vital for malaria elimination. However, the commonly used ex-vivo/in-vitro IC50 test is inconsistent for several antimalarials, while the alternative ring-stage survival assay (RSA) for artemisinin derivatives has not been widely adopted. Here we applied an alternative two-colour flow-cytometry based parasite survival rate assay (PSRA) to detect ex-vivo antimalarial tolerance in P. falciparum isolates from The Gambia.

Antibody responses to a suite of novel serological markers for malaria surveillance demonstrate strong correlation with clinical and parasitological infection across seasons and transmission settings in The Gambia

September 29, 2020 - 12:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wu L, Mwesigwa J, Affara M, Bah M, Correa S, Hall T, Singh SK, Beeson JG, Tetteh KKA, Kleinschmidt I, D'Alessandro U, Drakeley C
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2020 Sep 25;18(1):304

As malaria transmission declines, sensitive diagnostics are needed to evaluate interventions and monitor transmission. Serological assays measuring malaria antibody responses offer a cost-effective detection method to supplement existing surveillance tools.

Measuring ventilation in different typologies of rural Gambian houses: a pilot experimental study

August 4, 2020 - 15:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jakob B. Knudsen, Margaret Pinder, Ebrima Jatta, Musa Jawara, Mahamed A. Yousuf, Amalie T. Søndergaard and Steve W. Lindsay
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:273, 31 July 2020

African houses are frequently too hot and uncomfortable to use a bed net at night. Indoor thermal comfort is often evaluated by measuring temperature and humidity, ignoring ventilation. This study explored ways to measure ventilation in single-roomed rural Gambian houses during the malaria transmission season and evaluated building designs that could increase airflow at night and help keep the occupants comfortable.

Interferon-gamma polymorphisms and risk of iron deficiency and anaemia in Gambian children

June 12, 2020 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abuga KM, Rockett KA, Muriuki JM, Koch O, Nairz M, Sirugo G, Bejon P, Kwiatkowski DP, Prentice AM, Atkinson SH
Reference: 
Wellcome Open Res. 2020 Jun 2; 5:40

Anaemia is a major public health concern especially in African children living in malaria-endemic regions. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is elevated during malaria infection and is thought to influence erythropoiesis and iron status. Genetic variants in the IFN-γ gene (IFNG) are associated with increased IFN-γ production. We investigated putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of IFNG in relation to nutritional iron status and anaemia in Gambian children over a malaria season.

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