Daily periodicity in the diverse activities of parasites occurs across a broad taxonomic range. The rhythms exhibited by parasites are thought to be adaptations that allow parasites to cope with, or exploit, the consequences of host activities that follow daily rhythms. Malaria parasites (Plasmodium) are well-known for their synchronized cycles of replication within host red blood cells. Whilst most species of Plasmodium appear sensitive to the timing of the daily rhythms of hosts, and even vectors, some species present no detectable rhythms in blood-stage replication. Why the intraerythrocytic development cycle (IDC) of, for example Plasmodium chabaudi, is governed by host rhythms, yet seems completely independent of host rhythms in Plasmodium berghei, another rodent malaria species, is mysterious.
P218 is a highly selective dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor with potent in vitro activity against pyrimethamine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase Ib study evaluated P218 safety and chemoprotective efficacy in a P. falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) volunteer infection study (VIS). Consecutive dose safety and tolerability were evaluated (cohort 1), with participants receiving two oral doses of P218 1,000 mg 48 hours apart (n = 6), or placebo (n = 2). P218 chemoprotective efficacy was assessed (cohorts 2 and 3) with direct venous inoculation of 3,200 aseptic, cryopreserved PfSPZ (NF54 strain) followed 2 hours later with two P218 doses of 1,000 mg (cohort 2, n = 9) or 100 mg (cohort 3, n = 9) administered 48 hours apart, or placebo (n = 6).
Cas9/gRNA-mediated gene-drive systems have advanced development of genetic technologies for controlling vector-borne pathogen transmission. These technologies include population suppression approaches, genetic analogs of insecticidal techniques that reduce the number of insect vectors, and population modification (replacement/alteration) approaches, which interfere with competence to transmit pathogens.
C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) develop neurological symptoms and die 6-–7-day post-inoculation in the absence of high parasitemia.