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anopheles mosquito

Larval habitat diversity and Anopheles mosquito species distribution in different ecological zones in Ghana

April 14, 2021 - 16:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hinne IA, Attah SK, Mensah BA, Forson AO, Afrane YA
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Apr 7;14(1):193

Understanding the ecology of larval malaria and lymphatic filariasis mosquitoes in a changing environment is important in developing effective control tools or programmes. This study characterized the breeding habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes in rural communities in different ecological zones in Ghana during the dry and rainy seasons.

NOT Open Access | Fifty years after the eradication of Malaria in Italy.The long pathway toward this great goal and the current health risks of imported malaria

March 23, 2021 - 14:37 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Martini M, Angheben A, Riccardi N, Orsini D
Reference: 
Pathog Glob Health. 2021 Mar 18:1-9

Fifty years ago, Italy was declared a malaria-free country by the World Health Organization (WHO). In remembering this important anniversary, the authors of this paper describe the long journey that led to this goal. In the century following the unification of Italy, malaria was one of the main public health problems. At the end of the 19th century, malaria cases amounted to 2 million, with 15,000-20,000 deaths per year.

Molecular and morphological identification of suspected Plasmodium vivax vectors in Central and Eastern Sudan

March 10, 2021 - 14:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Omnia Fathelrhman Abdelwhab, Arwa Elaagip, Musab M. Albsheer, Ayman Ahmed, Giacomo Maria Paganotti and Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:132, 4 March 2021

In spite of the global effort to eliminate malaria, it remains the most significant vector-borne disease of humans. Plasmodium falciparum is the dominant malaria parasite in sub-Saharan Africa. However, Plasmodium vivax is becoming widely spread throughout Africa. The overuse of vector control methods has resulted in a remarkable change in the behaviour of mosquito that feeds on human as well as on vector composition. The aim of this study was to identify Anopheles mosquito species in vivax malaria endemic regions and to investigate their role in P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (Pvcsp) allele diversity.

NOT Open Access | Host-pathogen interaction in the tissue environment during Plasmodium blood-stage infection

February 3, 2021 - 15:11 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Yui K, Inoue SI
Reference: 
Parasite Immunol. 2021 Feb;43(2):e12763

Human malarial infection occurs after an infectious Anopheles mosquito bites. Following the initial liver-stage infection, parasites transform into merozoites, infecting red blood cells (RBCs). Repeated RBC infection then occurs during the blood-stage infection, while patients experience various malarial symptoms. Protective immune responses are elicited by this systemic infection, but excessive responses are sometimes harmful for hosts.

Malaria in the USA: How Vulnerable Are We to Future Outbreaks

January 21, 2021 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dye-Braumuller KC, Kanyangarara M
Reference: 
Curr Trop Med Rep. 2021 Jan 14:1-9

Malaria poses a threat to nearly half of the world’s population, and recent literature in the USA is lacking regarding understanding risk for local outbreaks. This article aims to review Anopheles mosquito data, vector-borne disease outbreak preparedness, and human travel data from large international gateway cities in an effort to examine risk for localized outbreaks.

Atlantic Forest Malaria: A Review of More than 20 Years of Epidemiological Investigation

January 13, 2021 - 11:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Buery JC, de Alencar FEC, Duarte AMRC, Loss AC, Vicente CR, Ferreira LM, Fux B, Medeiros MM, Cravo P, Arez AP, Cerutti Junior C
Reference: 
Microorganisms. 2021 Jan 8;9(1):E132

In the south and southeast regions of Brazil, cases of malaria occur outside the endemic Amazon region near the Atlantic Forest in some coastal states, where Plasmodium vivax is the recognized parasite. Characteristics of cases and vectors, especially Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii, raise the hypothesis of a zoonosis with simians as reservoirs. The present review aims to report on investigations of the disease over a 23-year period. Two main sources have provided epidemiological data: the behavior of Anopheles vectors and the genetic and immunological aspects of Plasmodium spp. obtained from humans, Alouatta simians, and Anopheles spp. mosquitoes.

NOT Open Access | Structural vaccinology of malaria transmission-blocking vaccines

January 13, 2021 - 11:26 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Patel PN, Tolia NH
Reference: 
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2021 Jan 11

The development of effective vaccines remains a major health priority to combat the global burden of malaria, a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) elicit antibodies that neutralize the sexual stages of the parasite in blood meals ingested by the Anopheles mosquito, interrupting parasite development in the vector host and preventing disease spread to other individuals.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium's journey through the Anopheles mosquito: A comprehensive review

December 23, 2020 - 09:45 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Singh M, Trivedi S, Bhutani K, Singh G, Dubey A, Rapalli CK
Reference: 
Biochimie. 2020 Dec 17:S0300-9084(20)30330-8

The malaria parasite has an extraordinary ability to evade the immune system due to which the development of a malaria vaccine is a challenging task. Extensive research on malarial infection in the human host particularly during the liver stage has resulted in the discovery of potential candidate vaccines including RTS,S/AS01 and R21. However, complete elimination of malaria would require a holistic multi-component approach. In line with this, under the World Health Organization's PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI), the research focus has shifted towards the sexual stages of malaria in the mosquito host.

Radiation with reticulation marks the origin of a major malaria vector

December 16, 2020 - 12:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Small ST, Labbé F, Lobo NF, Koekemoer LL, Sikaala CH, Neafsey DE, Hahn MW, Fontaine MC, Besansky NJ
Reference: 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Dec 15;117(50):31583-31590

Advances in genomics have led to an appreciation that introgression is common, but its evolutionary consequences are poorly understood. In recent species radiations the sharing of genetic variation across porous species boundaries can facilitate adaptation to new environments and generate novel phenotypes, which may contribute to further diversification. Most Anopheles mosquito species that are of major importance as human malaria vectors have evolved within recent and rapid radiations of largely nonvector species.

Volatile allosteric antagonists of mosquito odorant receptors inhibit human-host attraction

December 15, 2020 - 14:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kythreoti G, Sdralia N, Tsitoura P, Papachristos DP, Michaelakis A, Karras V, Ruel DM, Yakir E, Bohbot JD, Schulz S, Iatrou K
Reference: 
J Biol Chem. 2020 Dec 9:jbc.RA120.016557

Odorant-dependent behaviors in insects are triggered by the binding of odorant ligands to the variable subunits of heteromeric olfactory receptors. Previous studies have shown, however, that specific odor binding to ORco, the common subunit of odorant receptor heteromers, may allosterically alter olfactory receptor function and profoundly affect subsequent behavioral responses. Using an insect cell-based screening platform, we identify and characterize several antagonists of the odorant receptor co-receptor of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (AgamORco) in a small collection of natural volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

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