Although malaria and Anopheles mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in Côte d’Ivoire, limited data are available to help understand the malaria vector density and transmission dynamics in areas bordering the country. To address this gap, the Anopheles mosquito species diversity, the members of the Anopheles gambiae complex and the transmission of malaria were assessed in four health districts along the borders of Côte d’Ivoire.
Interactions between the Anopheles mosquito vector and Plasmodium parasites shape how malaria is transmitted in endemic regions. The long association of these two organisms has led to evolutionary processes that minimize fitness costs of infection and benefit both players through shared nutrient resources, parasite immune suppression, and mosquito tolerance to infection.
Malaria is a potentially lethal parasitic disease due to infection by Plasmodium parasites, transmitted by Anopheles mosquito vectors. Various preventative measures may be recommended for travellers who visit endemic areas. The diagnosis is generally evoked in the context of a febrile patient returning from an endemic zone. Nevertheless, symptoms and clinical signs may be difficult to interpret, and fatal cases may only be diagnosed retrospectively with laboratory techniques, specific pathological features and patient history. The present work reports a case of fatal cerebral malaria diagnosed post-mortem, along with the techniques that allowed identification of the causative agent.
Successful monitoring of physiological resistance of malaria vectors requires about 150 female mosquitoes for a single set of tests. In some situations, the sampling effort is insufficient due to the low number of field-caught mosquitoes. To address this challenge, we demonstrate the feasibility of using the forced oviposition method for producing F1 from field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes.
Indoor residual spray with deltamethrin remains the most common tool for reducing malaria transmission in Thailand. Deltamethrin is commonly used to spray the entire inner surfaces of the walls to prevent mosquitoes from resting. This study compared the mosquito landing responses on humans inside three experimental huts treated with deltamethrin at three different extents of wall coverage (25%, 50%, and full coverage), with one clean/untreated hut serving as a control.
Malaria is a febrile and potentially fatal infection. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes and less frequently can be contracted through blood transfusions, sharing contaminated needles and syringes, mother-to-child transmission, or after solid organ transplantation (SOT). Posttransplant malaria has rarely been reported in the literature, even in endemic areas. We report the cases of three solid organ recipients in which Plasmodium vivax infection was documented during postsurgical evaluation 30 days after transplant surgery.
Understanding the ecology of larval malaria and lymphatic filariasis mosquitoes in a changing environment is important in developing effective control tools or programmes. This study characterized the breeding habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes in rural communities in different ecological zones in Ghana during the dry and rainy seasons.
Fifty years ago, Italy was declared a malaria-free country by the World Health Organization (WHO). In remembering this important anniversary, the authors of this paper describe the long journey that led to this goal. In the century following the unification of Italy, malaria was one of the main public health problems. At the end of the 19th century, malaria cases amounted to 2 million, with 15,000-20,000 deaths per year.
In spite of the global effort to eliminate malaria, it remains the most significant vector-borne disease of humans. Plasmodium falciparum is the dominant malaria parasite in sub-Saharan Africa. However, Plasmodium vivax is becoming widely spread throughout Africa. The overuse of vector control methods has resulted in a remarkable change in the behaviour of mosquito that feeds on human as well as on vector composition. The aim of this study was to identify Anopheles mosquito species in vivax malaria endemic regions and to investigate their role in P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (Pvcsp) allele diversity.
Human malarial infection occurs after an infectious Anopheles mosquito bites. Following the initial liver-stage infection, parasites transform into merozoites, infecting red blood cells (RBCs). Repeated RBC infection then occurs during the blood-stage infection, while patients experience various malarial symptoms. Protective immune responses are elicited by this systemic infection, but excessive responses are sometimes harmful for hosts.