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Not Open Access | Hypnozoites in Plasmodium: Do Parasites Parallel Plants

December 2, 2020 - 08:30 -- NOT Open Access
Merrick CJ
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Nov 27:S1471-4922(20)30299-3

The phenomenon of relapsing malaria has been recognised for centuries. It is caused in humans by the parasite species Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale, which can arrest growth at an early, asymptomatic stage as hypnozoites inside liver cells. These dormant parasites can remain quiescent for months or years, then reactivate causing symptomatic malaria.

Characterisation of plasmodial transketolases and identification of potential inhibitors: an in silico study

December 2, 2020 - 08:00 -- Open Access
Rita Afriyie Boateng, Özlem Tastan Bishop and Thommas Mutemi Musyoka
Malaria Journal 2020 19:442, 30 November 2020

Plasmodial transketolase (PTKT) enzyme is one of the novel pharmacological targets being explored as potential anti-malarial drug target due to its functional role and low sequence identity to the human enzyme. Despite this, features contributing to such have not been exploited for anti-malarial drug design. Additionally, there are no anti-malarial drugs targeting PTKTs whereas the broad activity of these inhibitors against PTKTs from other Plasmodium spp. is yet to be reported. This study characterises different PTKTs [Plasmodium falciparum (PfTKT), Plasmodium vivax (PvTKT), Plasmodium ovale (PoTKT), Plasmodium malariae (PmTKT) and Plasmodium knowlesi (PkTKT) and the human homolog (HsTKT)] to identify key sequence and structural based differences as well as the identification of selective potential inhibitors against PTKTs.

Prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of imported and local malaria cases in North-Western Province, Zambia: a cross-sectional study

November 24, 2020 - 15:08 -- Open Access
Maureen N. Chipoya and Nzooma M. Shimaponda-Mataa
Malaria Journal 2020 19:430, 23 November 2020

Imported malaria is a major challenge for countries that are in malaria elimination stage such as Zambia. Legitimate cross-border activities add to the risk of transmission, necessitating determination of prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of imported and local malaria.

Rapid diagnostic tests for Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

November 7, 2020 - 12:30 -- Open Access
Agarwal R, Choi L, Johnson S, Takwoingi Y
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Nov 4;11:CD013218

Plasmodium vivax (P vivax) is a focus of malaria elimination. It is important because P vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection are co‐endemic in some areas. There are asymptomatic carriers of P vivax, and the treatment for P vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria differs from that used in other types of malaria. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) will help distinguish P vivax from other malaria species to help treatment and elimination. There are RDTs available that detect P vivax parasitaemia through the detection of P vivax‐specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) antigens.

Extensive new Anopheles cryptic species involved in human malaria transmission in western Kenya

October 1, 2020 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Zhong D, Hemming-Schroeder E, Wang X, Kibret S, Zhou G, Atieli H, Lee MC, Afrane YA, Githeko AK, Yan G
Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 30;10(1):16139

A thorough understanding of malaria vector species composition and their bionomic characteristics is crucial to devise effective and efficient vector control interventions to reduce malaria transmission. It has been well documented in Africa that malaria interventions in the past decade have resulted in major changes in species composition from endophilic Anopheles gambiae to exophilic An. arabiensis.

Ultrasensitive CRISPR-based diagnostic for field-applicable detection of Plasmodium species in symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria

September 23, 2020 - 09:25 -- Open Access
Lee RA, Puig H, Nguyen PQ, Angenent-Mari NM, Donghia NM, McGee JP, Dvorin JD, Klapperich CM, Pollock NR, Collins JJ
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 21:202010196

Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium parasites hamper malaria control and eradication. Achieving malaria eradication requires ultrasensitive diagnostics for low parasite density infections (<100 parasites per microliter blood) that work in resource-limited settings (RLS). Sensitive point-of-care diagnostics are also lacking for nonfalciparum malaria, which is characterized by lower density infections and may require additional therapy for radical cure.

Not Open Access | Under the Radar: Epidemiology of Plasmodium ovale in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

August 10, 2020 - 15:56 -- NOT Open Access
Mitchell CL, Brazeau NF, Keeler C, Mwandagalirwa MK, Tshefu AK, Juliano JJ, Meshnick SR
J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 7:jiaa478

Plasmodium ovale is an understudied malaria species prevalent throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Little is known about the distribution of ovale malaria and risk factors associated with infection in areas of high malaria endemicity.

Cerebral and Plasmodium ovale Malaria in Rhode Island

August 5, 2020 - 16:25 -- Open Access
Kaine J, Moran-Guiati J, Tanch J, Clyne B
R I Med J (2013). 2020 Aug 3; 103(6):64-67

We report two cases of malaria diagnosed in Rhode Island. First, a 21-year-old female who presented with 5 days of fevers, chills, headache, and myalgias after returning from a trip to Liberia, found to have uncomplicated malaria due to P. ovale which was treated successfully with atovaquone/proguanil and primaquine.

Case Report: Diagnostic Challenges in the Detection of a Mixed Plasmodium vivax/ovale Infection in a Non-Endemic Setting

April 23, 2020 - 10:01 -- Open Access
Nguyen HTT, Romano F, Wampfler R, Mühlethaler K, Tannich E, Oberli A
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 20

In clinical practice, mixed-species malaria infections are often not detected by light microscopy (LM) or rapid diagnostic test, as a low number of parasites of one species may occur. Here, we report the case of an 8-year-old girl migrating with her family from Afghanistan with a two-species mixed infection with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale.


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