Artemisia annua L. has been used for millennia in Southeast Asia to treat “fever”. Many infectious microbial and viral diseases have been shown to respond to A. annua and communities around the world use the plant as a medicinal tea, especially for treating malaria.
Hydroxychloroquine, used to treat malaria and some autoimmune disorders, potently inhibits viral infection of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and SARS-CoV-2 in cell-culture studies. However, human clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine failed to establish its usefulness as treatment for COVID-19. This compound is known to interfere with endosomal acidification necessary to the proteolytic activity of cathepsins. Following receptor binding and endocytosis, cathepsin L can cleave the SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) proteins, thereby activating membrane fusion for cell entry.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Main protease (Mpro) is one of the vital drug targets amongst all the coronaviruses, as the protein is indispensable for virus replication. The study aimed to identify promising lead molecules against Mpro enzyme through virtual screening of Malaria Venture (MMV) Malaria Box (MB) comprising of 400 experimentally proven compounds.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk of contracting SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Information regarding co‐infection of SARS‐CoV‐2 with vector‐borne diseases (malaria and dengue) is crucial especially for the countries wherein malaria and dengue are endemic. The objective was to study the prevalence, demographic, clinical presentations among HCWs with COVID‐19 and to compare the viral clearance in HCWs with COVID‐19 and co‐infection of malaria and dengue.
Drug repositioning is a strategy that identifies new uses of approved drugs to treat conditions different from their original purpose. Current efforts to treat Covid-19 are based on this strategy. The first drugs used in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 were antimalarial drugs. It is their mechanism of action, i. e., rise in endosomal pH, which recommends them against the new coronavirus.
We remain largely without effective prophylactic/therapeutic interventions for COVID-19. Although many human COVID-19 clinical trials are ongoing, there remains a deficiency of supportive preclinical drug efficacy studies to help guide decisions. Here we assessed the prophylactic/therapeutic efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a drug of interest for COVID-19 management, in two animal disease models.
In December 2019, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China. African countries see slower dynamic of COVID-19 cases and deaths. One of the assumptions that may explain this later emergence in Africa, and more particularly in malaria endemic areas, would be the use of antimalarial drugs.
At the end of November 2019, a novel coronavirus responsible for respiratory tract infections (COVID-19) emerged in China. Despite drastic containment measures, this virus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), spread in Asia and Europe. The pandemic is ongoing with particular hotspot in Southern Europe and America. Many studies predicted a similar epidemic in Africa as that currently seen in Europe and the United States of America. However, reported data do not confirm these predictions. One of the hypotheses that could explain the later emergence and spread of COVID-19 pandemic in African countries is the use of antimalarial drugs to treat malaria, and more particularly artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).
The COVID-19 pandemic, which is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has been associated with more than 470,000 fatal cases worldwide. In order to develop antiviral interventions quickly, drugs used for treatment of unrelated diseases are currently being repurposed to combat COVID-19. Chloroquine is a anti-malaria drug that is frequently employed for COVID-19 treatment since it inhibits SARS-CoV-2 spread in the kidney-derived cell line Vero1-3.
The pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is having serious consequences on health and the economy worldwide. All evidence-based treatment strategies need to be considered to combat this new virus. Drugs need to be considered on scientific grounds of efficacy, safety and cost. Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are old drugs used in the treatment of malaria; in addition, their antiviral properties have been previously studied, including in coronaviruses, where evidence of efficacy has been found.