Acute Plasmodium vivax malaria is associated with haemolysis, bone marrow suppression, reticulocytopenia, and post-treatment reticulocytosis leading to haemoglobin recovery. Little is known how malaria affects glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and whether changes in activity when patients present may lead qualitative tests, like the fluorescent spot test (FST), to misdiagnose G6PD deficient (G6PDd) patients as G6PD normal (G6PDn). Giving primaquine or tafenoquine to such patients could result in severe haemolysis.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common enzyme deficiency, prevalent in many malaria-endemic countries. G6PD-deficient individuals are susceptible to hemolysis during oxidative stress, which can occur from exposure to certain medications, including 8-aminoquinolines used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria. Accordingly, access to point-of-care (POC) G6PD testing in Brazil is critical for safe treatment of P. vivax malaria.
The elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria requires 8-aminoquinolines, which are contraindicated in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency due to the risk of acute haemolytic anaemia. Several point-of-care devices have been developed to detect G6PD deficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of two of these devices against G6PD genotypes in Mauritania.
Plasmodium vivax occurs as a latent infection of liver and a patent infection of red blood cells. Radical cure requires both blood schizontocidal and hypnozoitocidal chemotherapies. The hypnozoitocidal therapies available are primaquine and tafenoquine, 8-aminoquinoline drugs that can provoke threatening acute hemolytic anemia in patients having an X-linked G6PD-deficiency. Heterozygous females may screen as G6PD-normal prior to radical cure and go on to experience hemolytic crisis.
Point-of-care glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) testing has the potential to make the use of radical treatment for vivax malaria safer and more effective. Widespread use of G6PD tests as part of malaria case management has been limited, in part due to due concerns regarding product usability, user training, and supervision. This study seeks to assess how well end users can understand the Standard™ G6PD Test (SD Biosensor, Suwon, South Korea) workflow, result output, and label after training. This will ultimately help inform test registration and introduction.
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) plays a central role in readiness assessment for malaria elimination in Myanmar by 2030 that includes primaquine (PQ) use. The risk of hemolysis in G6PDd individuals hampers the widespread use of primaquine safely in malaria-infected patients. In the pre-elimination era, it is important to screen initially for asymptomatic malaria in combination with G6PD deficiency by applying more sensitive diagnostic tools. Therefore, this study examined the proportion of G6PDd and the distribution of G6PD genotypes among malaria-infected national groups in Myanmar before initiation of malaria elimination strategies.
In 2017, an estimated 14 million cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria were reported from Asia, Central and South America, and the Horn of Africa. The clinical burden of vivax malaria is largely driven by its ability to form dormant liver stages (hypnozoites) that can reactivate to cause recurrent episodes of malaria. Elimination of both the blood and liver stages of the parasites (“radical cure”) is required to achieve a sustained clinical response and prevent ongoing transmission of the parasite. Novel treatment options and point-of-care diagnostics are now available to ensure that radical cure can be administered safely and effectively. We quantified the global economic cost of vivax malaria and estimated the potential cost benefit of a policy of radical cure after testing patients for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency greatly hinders Plasmodium vivax malaria radical cure and further elimination due to 8-aminoquinolines-associated hemolysis. Although the deleterious health effects of primaquine in G6PD deficient individuals have been known for over 50 years, G6PD testing is not routinely performed before primaquine treatment in most P. vivax endemic areas.
The radical cure of Plasmodium vivax requires treatment with an 8-aminoquinoline drug, such as primaquine and tafenoquine, to eradicate liver hypnozoite stages, which can reactivate to cause relapsing infections. Safe treatment regimens require prior screening of patients for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency to avoid potential life-threatening drug induced haemolysis. Testing is rarely available in malaria endemic countries, but will be needed to support routine use of radical cure. This study investigates end-user perspectives in Bangladesh on the introduction of a quantitative G6PD test (SD Biosensor STANDARD™ G6PD analyser) to support malaria elimination.
Accurate measurement of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is critical for malaria treatment as misclassification of G6PD deficiency could cause serious harm to patients. G6PD activity should be assessed in blood samples on the day of collection. Otherwise, specimens should be stored under suitable conditions to prevent loss of G6PD activity.