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Pre-intervention characteristics of the mosquito species in Benin in preparation for a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of dual active-ingredient long-lasting insecticidal nets for controlling insecticide-resistant malaria vectors

May 25, 2021 - 14:56 -- Open Access
Yovogan B, Sovi A, Akogbéto MC, et al.
PLoS One. 2021 May 20;16(5):e0251742

This study provides detailed characteristics of vector populations in preparation for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to compare the community impact of dual active-ingredient (AI) long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) that combine two novel insecticide classes–chlorfenapyr or pyriproxifen–with alpha-cypermethrin to improve the prevention of malaria transmitted by insecticide-resistant vectors compared to standard pyrethroid LLINs.


The study was carried out in 60 villages across Cove, Zangnanando and Ouinhi districts, southern Benin. Mosquito collections were performed using human landing catches (HLCs). After morphological identification, a sub-sample of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were dissected for parity, analyzed by PCR for species and presence of L1014F kdr mutation and by ELISA-CSP to identify Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection. WHO susceptibility tube tests were performed by exposing adult An. gambiae s.l., collected as larvae from each district, to 0.05% alphacypermethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 0.25% pirimiphos-methyl. Synergist assays were also conducted with exposure first to 4% PBO followed by alpha-cypermethrin.

Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) combined with pyrethroids in insecticide-treated nets to prevent malaria in Africa

May 25, 2021 - 14:04 -- Open Access
Gleave K, Lissenden N, Chaplin M, Choi L, Ranson H
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 24;5:CD012776

Pyrethroid long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been important in the large reductions in malaria cases in Africa, but insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes threatens their impact. Insecticide synergists may help control insecticide-resistant populations. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is such a synergist; it has been incorporated into pyrethroid-LLINs to form pyrethroid-PBO nets, which are currently produced by five LLIN manufacturers and, following a recommendation from the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2017, are being included in distribution campaigns. This review examines epidemiological and entomological evidence on the addition of PBO to pyrethroid nets on their efficacy.

Behavioral response of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes against spatial repellent: A modified self-propelled particle model simulation

January 1, 2021 - 16:06 -- Open Access
Zhou G, Yu L, Wang X, Zhong D, Lee MC, Kibret S, Yan G
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 29;15(12):e0244447

Rapidly increasing pyrethroid insecticide resistance and changes in vector biting and resting behavior pose serious challenges in malaria control. Mosquito repellents, especially spatial repellents, have received much attention from industry. We attempted to simulate interactions between mosquitoes and repellents using a machine learning method, the Self-Propelled Particle (SPP) model, which we modified to include attractiveness/repellency effects. We simulated a random walk scenario and scenarios with insecticide susceptible/resistant mosquitoes against repellent alone and against repellent plus attractant (to mimic a human host).

A steroid hormone agonist reduces female fitness in insecticide-resistant Anopheles populations

April 13, 2020 - 15:21 -- Open Access
Brown F, Paton DG, Catteruccia F, Ranson H, Ingham VA
Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2020 Apr 7:103372

Insecticide based vector control tools such as insecticide treated bednets and indoor residual spraying represent the cornerstones of malaria control programs. Resistance to chemistries used in these programs is now widespread and represents a significant threat to the gains seen in reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality.

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