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young children

Combining malaria vaccination with chemoprevention: a promising new approach to malaria control

September 8, 2021 - 16:21 -- Open Access
Brian Greenwood, Matthew Cairns, Mike Chaponda, R. Matthew Chico, Alassane Dicko, Jean-Bosco Ouedraogo, Kamija S. Phiri, Feiko O. ter Kuile and Daniel Chandramohan
Malaria Journal 2021 20:361, 6 September 2021

Malaria control has stalled in a number of African countries and novel approaches to malaria control are needed for these areas. The encouraging results of a recent trial conducted in young children in Burkina Faso and Mali in which a combination of the RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine and seasonal malaria chemoprevention led to a substantial reduction in clinical cases of malaria, severe malaria, and malaria deaths compared with the administration of either intervention given alone suggests that there may be other epidemiological/clinical situations in which a combination of malaria vaccination and chemoprevention could be beneficial.

Nutritional status in young children prior to the malaria transmission season in Burkina Faso and Mali, and its impact on the incidence of clinical malaria

June 23, 2021 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Mariken de Wit, Matthew Cairns, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:274, 22 June 2021

Malaria and malnutrition remain major problems in Sahel countries, especially in young children. The direct effect of malnutrition on malaria remains poorly understood, and may have important implications for malaria control. In this study, nutritional status and the association between malnutrition and subsequent incidence of symptomatic malaria were examined in children in Burkina Faso and Mali who received either azithromycin or placebo, alongside seasonal malaria chemoprevention.

NOT Open Access | Sex differences in concentrations of HMGB1 and numbers of pigmented monocytes in infants and young children with malaria

May 25, 2021 - 15:24 -- NOT Open Access
Kanoi BN, Egwang TG
Parasitol Int. 2021 May 19:102387

Sex remains a key biological variable affecting human innate and adaptive immune responses to infection and in pathogenesis of diseases. In malaria, females demonstrate higher concentrations of antibodies and rates of severe adverse events and mortality following malaria vaccination. Although monocytes/macrophages play a crucial role in disease and protection in malaria, no studies have investigated sex differences in their functions in production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in malaria-infected subjects.

Risk of malaria in young children after periconceptional iron supplementation

November 28, 2020 - 15:56 -- Open Access
Gies S, Roberts SA, Diallo S, Lompo OM, Tinto H, Brabin BJ
Matern Child Nutr. 2020 Nov 25:e13106

This study in Burkina Faso investigated whether offspring of young mothers who had received weekly periconceptional iron supplementation in a randomised controlled trial were at increased risk of malaria. A child safety survey was undertaken in the peak month of malaria transmission towards the end of the trial to assess child iron biomarkers, nutritional status, anaemia and malaria outcomes. Antenatal iron biomarkers, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and placental pathology for malaria and chorioamnionitis were assessed.

NOT Open Access | The preclinical discovery and development of rectal artesunate for the treatment of malaria in young children; review of evidence

September 15, 2020 - 14:35 -- NOT Open Access
de Carvalho LP, Kreidenweiss A, Held J
Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2020 Sep 14:1-10

Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite, kills hundreds of thousands of people per year, mainly young children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Artesunate suppositories are recommended as pre-referral malaria treatment in remote endemic areas for severely ill children to prevent progression of the disease and to provide extra time for patients until the definitive severe malaria treatment can be administered.

NOT Open Access | Impact of Malaria in Pregnancy on Risk of Malaria in Young Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

July 27, 2020 - 12:31 -- NOT Open Access
Park S, Nixon CE, Miller O, Choi NK, Kurtis JD, Friedman JF, Michelow IC
J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 23; 222(4):538-550

Our objective was to quantify the risk of acquiring malaria among progeny of women with malaria during pregnancy.

COVID-19 and the impact on malaria

June 2, 2020 - 09:36 -- Open Access
Chiodini J
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 May 29:101758

As COVID -19 continues to dominate the health and political agendas in so many countries around the world, so does its devastating impact on other diseases become apparent. Malaria is just one of these.

The Impact of Control Interventions on Malaria Burden in Young Children in a Historically High-Transmission District of Uganda: A Pooled Analysis of Cohort Studies from 2007 to 2018

May 21, 2020 - 06:46 -- Open Access
Kamya MR, Kakuru A, Dorsey G, et al.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 18

There is limited evidence on whether malaria elimination is feasible in high-transmission areas of Africa. Between 2007 and 2018, we measured the impact of malaria control interventions in young children enrolled in three clinical trials and two observational studies in Tororo, Uganda, a historically high-transmission area. Data were pooled from children aged 0.5–2 years.

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