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human malaria

Identification keys to the Anopheles mosquitoes of South America (Diptera: Culicidae). IV. Adult females

November 19, 2020 - 13:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sallum MAM, Obando RG, Carrejo N, Wilkerson RC
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Nov 18;13(1):584

Morphological identification of adult females of described species of the genus Anopheles Meigen, 1818 in South America is problematic, but necessary due to their differing roles in the transmission of human malaria. The increase in the number of species complexes uncovered by molecular taxonomy challenges accurate identification using morphology. In addition, the majority of newly discovered species have not been formally described and in some cases the identities of the nominotypical species of species complexes have not been resolved. Here, we provide an up-to-date key to identify Neotropical Anopheles species using female external morphology and employing traditionally used and new characters.

NOT Open Access | Intrinsic fluorescence properties of antimalarial pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles facilitate subcellular accumulation and mechanistic studies in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

October 21, 2020 - 09:27 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Korkor CM, Garnie LF, Amod L, Egan TJ, Chibale K
Reference: 
Org Biomol Chem. 2020 Oct 20

The intrinsic fluorescence properties of two related pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole antimalarial compounds suitable for the cellular imaging of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum without the need to attach extrinsic fluorophores are described. Although these compounds are structurally related, they have been shown by confocal microscopy to not only accumulate selectively within P. falciparum but to also accumulate differently in the organelles investigated.

Genetic diversity and neutral selection in Plasmodium vivax erythrocyte binding protein correlates with patient antigenicity

July 13, 2020 - 16:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Han JH, Cho JS, Han ET, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(7): e0008202

Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread and difficult to treat cause of human malaria. The development of vaccines against the blood stages of P. vivax remains a key objective for the control and elimination of vivax malaria. Erythrocyte binding-like (EBL) protein family members such as Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) are of critical importance to erythrocyte invasion and have been the major target for vivax malaria vaccine development.

Plasmodium falciparum translational machinery condones polyadenosine repeats

June 1, 2020 - 16:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pavlovic Djuranovic S, Erath J, Andrews RJ, Bayguinov PO, Chung JJ, Chalker DL, Fitzpatrick JA, Moss WN, Szczesny P, Djuranovic S
Reference: 
Elife. 2020 May 29; 9:e57799

Plasmodium falciparum is causative agent of human malaria. Sixty percent of mRNAs from its extremely AT-rich (81%) genome harbor long polyadenosine (polyA) runs within their ORFs, distinguishing the parasite from its hosts and other sequenced organisms. Recent studies indicate polyA runs cause ribosome stalling and frameshifting, triggering mRNA surveillance pathways and attenuating protein synthesis.

A cutting-edge immunoinformatics approach for design of multi-epitope oral vaccine against dreadful human malaria

May 6, 2020 - 14:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pritam M, Singh G, Swaroop S, Singh AK, Pandey B, Singh SP
Reference: 
Int J Biol Macromol. 2020 Apr 29. pii: S0141-8130(20)33050-6

Human malaria is a pathogenic disease mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which was responsible for about 405,000 deaths globally in the year 2018. To date, several vaccine candidates have been evaluated for prevention, which failed to produce optimal output at various preclinical/clinical stages. This study is based on designing of polypeptide vaccines (PVs) against human malaria that cover almost all stages of life cycle of Plasmodium and for the same 5 genome derived predicted antigenic proteins (GDPAP) have been used.

Not Open Access | Recombinase polymerase amplification and lateral flow assay for ultrasensitive detection of low-density Plasmodium falciparum infection from controlled human malaria infection studies and naturally acquired infections

March 3, 2020 - 12:38 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lalremruata A, Nguyen TT, Mordmüller B, et al.
Reference: 
J Clin Microbiol. 2020 Feb 26. pii: JCM.01879-19

Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the main diagnostic tools for malaria but fail to detect low-density parasitemia that are important for maintaining malaria transmission. To complement existing diagnostic methods, an isothermal reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification and lateral flow assay (RT-RPA) was developed.

Fast and fierce versus slow and smooth: Heterogeneity in immune responses to Plasmodium in the controlled human malaria infection model

January 20, 2020 - 14:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yap XZ, McCall MBB, Sauerwein RW
Reference: 
Immunological Reviews, Volume293, Issue1, January 2020

Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is an established model in clinical malaria research. Upon exposure to Plasmodium falciparum parasites, malaria‐naive volunteers differ in dynamics and composition of their immune profiles and subsequent capacity to generate protective immunity. CHMI volunteers are either inflammatory responders who have prominent cellular IFN‐γ production primarily driven by adaptive T cells, or tempered responders who skew toward antibody‐mediated humoral immunity. When exposed to consecutive CHMIs under antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, individuals who can control parasitemia after a single immunization (fast responders) are more likely to be protected against a subsequent challenge infection.

Novel RNA viruses associated with Plasmodium vivax in human malaria and Leucocytozoon parasites in avian disease

January 14, 2020 - 17:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Charon J, Grigg MJ, Eden JS, Piera KA, Rana H, William T, Rose K, Davenport MP, Anstey NM, Holmes EC
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog 15(12): e1008216

Eukaryotes of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria, a parasitic disease responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in humans. Yet, the nature and abundance of any viruses carried by these divergent eukaryotic parasites is unknown. We investigated the Plasmodium virome by performing a meta-transcriptomic analysis of blood samples taken from patients suffering from malaria and infected with P. vivax, P. falciparum or P. knowlesi.

Transforming growth factor-beta profiles correlate with clinical symptoms and parameters of haemostasis and inflammation in a controlled human malaria infection

January 7, 2020 - 14:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
de Jong GM, McCall MBB, van Genderen PJJ, et al.
Reference: 
Cytokine Volume 125, January 2020, 154838

After a controlled human malaria infection (CHMI), presentation of clinical signs and symptoms and host responses is heterogeneous. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is the first serum cytokine that changes in malaria-naïve volunteers after CHMI. We studied a possible relation between TGF-β changes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, activation of haemostasis and endothelial cells and clinical symptoms.

A two-colour multiplexed lateral flow immunoassay system to differentially detect human malaria species on a single test line

September 23, 2019 - 14:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jinsu Kim, Xiangkun Elvis Cao, Julia L. Finkelstein, Washington B. Cárdenas, David Erickson and Saurabh Mehta
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:313, 18 September 2019

Malaria continues to impose a tremendous burden in terms of global morbidity and mortality, yet even today, a large number of diagnoses are presumptive resulting in lack of or inappropriate treatment.

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