Plasmodium vivax has been proposed to infect and replicate in the human spleen and bone marrow. Compared to Plasmodium falciparum, which is known to undergo microvascular tissue sequestration, little is known about the behavior of P. vivax outside of the circulating compartment. This may be due in part to difficulties in studying parasite location and activity in life.
PfSPZ-CVac combines 'PfSPZ Challenge', which consists of infectious Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ), with concurrent antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. In a previously-published PfSPZ-CVac study, three doses of 5.12x104 PfSPZ-CVac given 28 days apart had 100% vaccine efficacy (VE) against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) 10 weeks after the last immunization, while the same dose given as three injections five days apart had 63% VE. Here, we conducted a dose escalation trial of similarly condensed schedules.
The host hormone melatonin is known to modulate the asexual cell-cycle of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the kinase PfPK7 is fundamental in the downstream signaling pathways. The nuclear protein PfMORC displays a histidine kinase domain and is involved in parasite cell cycle control. By using a real-time assay, we show a 24 h (h) rhythmic expression of PfMORC at the parasite asexual cycle and the expression is dramatically changed when parasites were treated with 100 nM melatonin for 17 h.
Morphological identification of adult females of described species of the genus Anopheles Meigen, 1818 in South America is problematic, but necessary due to their differing roles in the transmission of human malaria. The increase in the number of species complexes uncovered by molecular taxonomy challenges accurate identification using morphology. In addition, the majority of newly discovered species have not been formally described and in some cases the identities of the nominotypical species of species complexes have not been resolved. Here, we provide an up-to-date key to identify Neotropical Anopheles species using female external morphology and employing traditionally used and new characters.
The intrinsic fluorescence properties of two related pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole antimalarial compounds suitable for the cellular imaging of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum without the need to attach extrinsic fluorophores are described. Although these compounds are structurally related, they have been shown by confocal microscopy to not only accumulate selectively within P. falciparum but to also accumulate differently in the organelles investigated.
Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread and difficult to treat cause of human malaria. The development of vaccines against the blood stages of P. vivax remains a key objective for the control and elimination of vivax malaria. Erythrocyte binding-like (EBL) protein family members such as Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) are of critical importance to erythrocyte invasion and have been the major target for vivax malaria vaccine development.
Plasmodium falciparum is causative agent of human malaria. Sixty percent of mRNAs from its extremely AT-rich (81%) genome harbor long polyadenosine (polyA) runs within their ORFs, distinguishing the parasite from its hosts and other sequenced organisms. Recent studies indicate polyA runs cause ribosome stalling and frameshifting, triggering mRNA surveillance pathways and attenuating protein synthesis.
Human malaria is a pathogenic disease mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which was responsible for about 405,000 deaths globally in the year 2018. To date, several vaccine candidates have been evaluated for prevention, which failed to produce optimal output at various preclinical/clinical stages. This study is based on designing of polypeptide vaccines (PVs) against human malaria that cover almost all stages of life cycle of Plasmodium and for the same 5 genome derived predicted antigenic proteins (GDPAP) have been used.
Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the main diagnostic tools for malaria but fail to detect low-density parasitemia that are important for maintaining malaria transmission. To complement existing diagnostic methods, an isothermal reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification and lateral flow assay (RT-RPA) was developed.
Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is an established model in clinical malaria research. Upon exposure to Plasmodium falciparum parasites, malaria‐naive volunteers differ in dynamics and composition of their immune profiles and subsequent capacity to generate protective immunity. CHMI volunteers are either inflammatory responders who have prominent cellular IFN‐γ production primarily driven by adaptive T cells, or tempered responders who skew toward antibody‐mediated humoral immunity. When exposed to consecutive CHMIs under antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, individuals who can control parasitemia after a single immunization (fast responders) are more likely to be protected against a subsequent challenge infection.