The Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter gene (pfcrt) is known to be involved in chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance, and more particularly the mutations on the loci 72 to 76 localized within the second exon. Additionally, new mutations (T93S, H97Y, C101F, F145I, M343L, C350R and G353V) were recently shown to be associated with in vitro reduced susceptibility to piperaquine in Asian or South American P. falciparum strains. However, very few data are available on the prevalence of these mutations and their effect on parasite susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs, and more particularly piperaquine in Africa.
chloroquine resistance transporter
Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) confer resistance to several antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine (CQ) or piperaquine (PPQ), a partner molecule in current artemisinin-based combination therapies. As a member of the Drug/Metabolite Transporter (DMT) superfamily, the vacuolar transporter PfCRT may translocate substrate molecule(s) across the membrane of the digestive vacuole (DV), a lysosome-like organelle.