An 84-year-old woman with hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and chronic kidney disease presented with fever and was diagnosed with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Malaria and COVID-19 may have similar aspects and seem to have a strong potential for mutual influence. They have already caused millions of deaths, and the regions where malaria is endemic are at risk of further suffering from the consequences of COVID-19 due to mutual side effects, such as less access to treatment for patients with malaria due to the fear of access to healthcare centers leading to diagnostic delays and worse outcomes.
Back in March when COVID-19 hit, some scientists worried malaria cases and deaths might soar. African countries went on lockdown; worried about mass gatherings, they suspended campaigns to distribute mosquito-fighting bed nets. Fears abounded that with clinics overwhelmed by COVID-19, patients would be unable to get treatment for malaria.
Coronavirus pandemic has caused a vast number of deaths worldwide. Thus creating an urgent need to develop effective counteragents against novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Many antiviral drugs have been repurposed for treatment but implicated minimal recovery, which further advanced the need for clearer insights and innovation to derive effective therapeutics. Strategically, Noscapine, an approved antitussive drug with positive effects on lung linings may show favorable outcomes synergistically with antiviral drugs in trials.
At the end of November 2019, a novel coronavirus responsible for respiratory tract infections (COVID-19) emerged in China. Despite drastic containment measures, this virus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), spread in Asia and Europe. The pandemic is ongoing with particular hotspot in Southern Europe and America. Many studies predicted a similar epidemic in Africa as that currently seen in Europe and the United States of America. However, reported data do not confirm these predictions. One of the hypotheses that could explain the later emergence and spread of COVID-19 pandemic in African countries is the use of antimalarial drugs to treat malaria, and more particularly artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).
The burden of malaria is heavily concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where cases and deaths associated with COVID-19 are rising1. In response, countries are implementing societal measures aimed at curtailing transmission of SARS-CoV-22,3. Despite these measures, the COVID-19 epidemic could still result in millions of deaths as local health facilities become overwhelmed4.
COVID-19 is affecting different countries all over the world with great variation in infection rate and death ratio. Some reports suggested a relation between the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and the malaria treatment to the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some reports related infant's lower susceptibility to the COVID-19.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in millions of infections, hundreds of thousands of deaths and major societal disruption due to lockdowns and other restrictions introduced to limit disease spread. Relatively little attention has been paid to understanding how the pandemic has affected treatment, prevention and control of malaria, which is a major cause of death and disease and predominantly affects people in less well-resourced settings.
The world is currently facing a novel COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 that, as of July 12, 2020, has caused a reported 12,322,395 cases and 556,335 deaths. To date, only two treatments, remdesivir and dexamethasone, have demonstrated clinical efficacy through randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in seriously ill patients. The search for new or repurposed drugs for treatment of COVID-19 continues.
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