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Covid-19

Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis and treatment is ineffective in macaque and hamster SARS-CoV-2 disease models

October 27, 2020 - 15:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosenke K, Jarvis MA, Feldmann H, et al.
Reference: 
JCI Insight. 2020 Oct 22:143174

We remain largely without effective prophylactic/therapeutic interventions for COVID-19. Although many human COVID-19 clinical trials are ongoing, there remains a deficiency of supportive preclinical drug efficacy studies to help guide decisions. Here we assessed the prophylactic/therapeutic efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a drug of interest for COVID-19 management, in two animal disease models.

Overlaying COVID-19 mitigation plans on malaria control infrastructures

October 13, 2020 - 13:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rahi M, Baharia RK, Das P, Chhibber-Goel J, Sharma A
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Oct 12:traa108

To counter the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, each country must design sustainable control plans given the inherent disparities in wealth and healthcare systems.

Finding the Dose for Hydroxychloroquine Prophylaxis for COVID-19: The Desperate Search for Effectiveness

October 7, 2020 - 16:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Al-Kofahi M, Jacobson P, Boulware DR, Matas A, Kandaswamy R, Jaber MM, Rajasingham R, Young JH, Nicol MR
Reference: 
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Oct;108(4):766-769

Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug being tested as a potential treatment for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Although the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 remains uncertain, it may serve as a potential prophylactic agent especially in those at high risk, such as healthcare workers, household contacts of infected patients, and the immunocompromised.

Brief Report: Hydroxychloroquine does not induce hemolytic anemia or organ damage in a "humanized" G6PD A- mouse model

October 6, 2020 - 12:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zuchelkowski BE, Wang L, Gingras S, Xu Q, Yang M, Triulzi D, Page GP, Gordeuk VR, Kim-Shapiro DB, Lee JS, Gladwin MT
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Oct 2;15(10):e0240266

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is widely used in the treatment of malaria, rheumatologic disease such as lupus, and most recently, COVID-19. These uses raise concerns about its safe use in the setting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, especially as 11% of African American men carry the G6PD A- variant. However, limited data exist regarding the safety of HCQ in this population.

Interaction of Hydroxychloroquine with Pharmacokinetically Important Drug Transporters

October 1, 2020 - 15:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Weiss J, Bajraktari-Sylejmani G, Haefeli WE
Reference: 
Pharmaceutics. 2020 Sep 25;12(10):E919

Hydroxychloroquine is used to treat malaria and autoimmune diseases, and its potential use against COVID-19 is currently under investigation. Thus far, information on interactions of hydroxychloroquine with drug transporters mediating drug-drug interactions is limited. We assessed the inhibition of important efflux (P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)) and uptake transporters (organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1) by hydroxychloroquine, tested its P-gp and BCRP substrate characteristics, and evaluated the induction of pharmacokinetically relevant genes regulated by the nuclear pregnane X (PXR) (CYP3A4, ABCB1) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) (CYP1A1, CYP1A2).

Indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria intervention coverage, morbidity, and mortality in Africa: a geospatial modelling analysis

September 29, 2020 - 13:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Weiss DJ, Bertozzi-Villa A, Peter W Gething, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 21:S1473-3099(20)30700-3

Substantial progress has been made in reducing the burden of malaria in Africa since 2000, but those gains could be jeopardised if the COVID-19 pandemic affects the availability of key malaria control interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate plausible effects on malaria incidence and mortality under different levels of disruption to malaria control.

COVID-19 in malaria-endemic regions: potential consequences for malaria intervention coverage, morbidity, and mortality

September 29, 2020 - 13:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Teboh-Ewungkem MI, Ngwa GA
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 21:S1473-3099(20)30763-5

COVID-19 has had a massive impact on the populations and economies of the world. As of Sept 9, 2020, the virus has infected more than 27 million people in 216 countries and territories worldwide, and the number of deaths is approaching a million.

Pharmacological and cardiovascular perspectives on the treatment of COVID-19 with chloroquine derivatives

September 24, 2020 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhang XL, Li ZM, Ye JT, Lu J, Ye LL, Zhang CX, Liu PQ, Duan DD
Reference: 
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2020 Sep 23

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and an ongoing severe pandemic. Curative drugs specific for COVID-19 are currently lacking. Chloroquine phosphate and its derivative hydroxychloroquine, which have been used in the treatment and prevention of malaria and autoimmune diseases for decades, were found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection with high potency in vitro and have shown clinical and virologic benefits in COVID-19 patients.

Chloroquine against malaria, cancers and viral diseases

September 23, 2020 - 08:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou W, Wang H, Yang Y, Chen ZS, Zou C, Zhang J
Reference: 
Drug Discov Today. 2020 Sep 16:S1359-6446(20)30367-6

Quinoline (QN) derivatives are often used for the prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. Chloroquine (CQ), a protonated, weakly basic drug, exerts its antimalarial effect mainly by increasing pH and accumulating in the food vacuole of the parasites.

Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in the Treatment of Malaria and Repurposing in Treating COVID-19

September 15, 2020 - 14:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lei ZN, Wu ZX, Dong S, Yang DH, Zhang L, Ke Z, Zou C, Chen ZS
Reference: 
Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Sep 7:107672

Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been commonly used for the treatment and prevention of malaria, and the treatment of autoimmune diseases for several decades. As their new mechanisms of actions are identified in recent years, CQ and HCQ have wider therapeutic applications, one of which is to treat viral infectious diseases.

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