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Covid-19

Treatment of COVID-19 with Chloroquine: Implication for Malaria Chemotherapy Using ACTs in Disease Endemic Countries

December 29, 2020 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Quashie NB, Duah-Quashie NO
Reference: 
J Trop Pediatr. 2020 Dec 27:fmaa089

Based on reports of parasite resistance and on World Health Organization recommendation, chloroquine was replaced with the artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as the first choice of drugs for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Disuse of chloroquine led to restoration of drug-sensitive parasite to some extent in certain countries. Ever since chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were touted as potential treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there has been a dramatic surge in demand for the drugs.

Malaria and COVID-19: unmasking their ties

December 23, 2020 - 09:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mogahed Ismail Hassan Hussein, Ahmed Abdalazim Dafallah Albashir, Omer Ali Mohamed Ahmed Elawad and Anmar Homeida
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:457, 23 December 2020

The incidence and mortality of COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization reports, shows a noticeable difference between North America, Western Europe, and South Asia on one hand and most African countries on the other hand, especially the malaria-endemic countries. Although this observation could be attributed to limited testing capacity, mitigation tools adopted and cultural habits, many theories have been postulated to explain this difference in prevalence and mortality. Because death tends to occur more in elders, both the role of demography, and how the age structure of a population may contribute to the difference in mortality rate between countries were discussed.

Cross-border COVID-19 spread amidst malaria re-emergence in Venezuela: a human rights analysis

December 23, 2020 - 09:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Correa-Salazar C, Amon JJ
Reference: 
Global Health. 2020 Dec 17;16(1):118

Since 2016 Venezuela has seen a collapse in its economy and public health infrastructure resulting in a humanitarian crisis and massive outward migration. With the emergence of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019, the public health emergency within its borders and in neighboring countries has become more severe and as increasing numbers of Venezuelans migrants return home or get stuck along migratory routes, new risks are emerging in the region.

Liquid Chromatographic Methods for COVID-19 Drugs, Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine

December 23, 2020 - 08:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bilgin ZD, Evcil I, Yazgi D, Binay G, Okuyucu Genc C, Gulsen B, Huseynova A, Ozdemir AZ, Ozmen E, Usta Y, Ustun S, Caglar Andac S
Reference: 
J Chromatogr Sci. 2020 Dec 18:bmaa110

COVID-19 has been a threat throughout the world since December 2019. In attempts to discover an urgent treatment regime for COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) have been on solidarity clinical trial. However, many countries have pulled HCQ and CQ from their COVID-19 treatment regimens recently, some countries still continue using them for patients who have previously started HCQ and CQ and they may complete their course under the supervision of a doctor. HCQ and CQ are 4-aminoquinoline drugs and it is safe to use them for autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and malaria as well.

COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, prevention behaviours and misinformation in the context of an adapted seasonal malaria chemoprevention campaign in six northern Nigerian States

December 15, 2020 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Richardson S, Ibinaiye T, Nikau J, Oresanya O, Marasciulo M, Roca-Feltrer A, Rassi C, Adesoro O
Reference: 
Trop Med Health. 2020 Dec 14;48(1):101

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine is an efficacious intervention for protection of children against Plasmodium falciparum malaria during the rainy season. In response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, Malaria Consortium adapted its SMC delivery model to ensure safety of distributors, data collectors and beneficiaries. We conducted a SMC monitoring survey in July 2020 in the states of Bauchi, Jigawa, Kano, Katsina, Sokoto and Yobe, with questions on COVID-19 prevention behaviours and symptoms, and belief in misinformation. We investigated the associations between receipt of information on COVID-19 by different sources, including from SMC distributors, and these three outcomes using logistic generalised estimating equations. We also considered moderation of effectiveness of message delivery by SMC distributors and adherence to use of face coverings.

NOT Open Access | Metabolism and Interactions of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine with Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Drug Transporters

December 10, 2020 - 09:59 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rendic SP, Guengerich FP
Reference: 
Curr Drug Metab. 2020 Dec 8

In clinical practice chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are often co-administered with other drugs in the treatment of malaria, chronic inflammatory diseases, and COVID-19. Therefore, their metabolic properties and the effects on activity of cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes and drug transporters should be considered into when developing the most efficient treatments for patients.

NOT Open Access | Could Artesunate Have a Positive Effect on the Neurological Complications Related to Infection When It Is Used in the Treatment of COVID-19

December 8, 2020 - 10:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Uzun T, Toptaş O, Aydın Türkoğlu Ş
Reference: 
ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020 Dec 3

Artesunate is a safe noncytotoxic drug with low side effects which is used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. In addition to being an antimalarial drug, artesunate also has immunomodulatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiviral activity. There are in vivo and in vitro studies reporting that artesunate may have a positive effect on the treatment of COVID-19.

Systematic review of registered trials of Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis for COVID-19 health-care workers at the first third of 2020

December 2, 2020 - 09:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bienvenu AL, Marty AM, Jones MK, Picot S
Reference: 
One Health. 2020 Dec;10:100141

In the absence of a vaccine the medical and scientific community is looking intensely at utilizing a pre or post exposure drug that could decrease viremia. The search for a medication that could reduce risk of serious disease, and ideally of any manifestation of disease from SARS-CoV2, and of asymptomatic shedding of SARS-CoV2 is of urgent interest. Repurposing existing pharmaceuticals is among the approaches to achieve these ends.

Digitalized mass distribution campaign of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the particular context of Covid-19 pandemic in Benin: challenges and lessons learned

November 25, 2020 - 12:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rock Aïkpon, Cyriaque Affoukou, Aurore Ogouyemi Hounto, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:431, 25 November 2020

In 2020, Benin has implemented a digitalized mass distribution campaign of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the particular context of COVID-19 pandemic. This paper describes the implementation process as well as the challenges and lessons learned from this campaign.

SARS-COV2 and P. falciparum common immunodominant regions may explain low COVID-19 incidence in the malaria-endemic belt

November 25, 2020 - 12:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Iesa MA, Osman ME, Hassan MA, Dirar AI, Abuzeid N, Mancuso JJ, Pandey R, Mohammed AA, Borad MJ, Babiker HM, Konozy EH
Reference: 
New Microbes New Infect. 2020 Nov 19:100817

COVID-19 has caused significant morbidity and mortality, and new cases are on the rise globally, yet malaria-endemic areas report statistically significant lower incidences. We identified potential shared targets for an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 by immune determinants shared identities with Plasmodium falciparum using IEDB's Immune browser tool 9.0.

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