Substantial progress has been made in reducing the burden of malaria in Africa since 2000, but those gains could be jeopardised if the COVID-19 pandemic affects the availability of key malaria control interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate plausible effects on malaria incidence and mortality under different levels of disruption to malaria control.
COVID-19 has had a massive impact on the populations and economies of the world. As of Sept 9, 2020, the virus has infected more than 27 million people in 216 countries and territories worldwide, and the number of deaths is approaching a million.
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and an ongoing severe pandemic. Curative drugs specific for COVID-19 are currently lacking. Chloroquine phosphate and its derivative hydroxychloroquine, which have been used in the treatment and prevention of malaria and autoimmune diseases for decades, were found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection with high potency in vitro and have shown clinical and virologic benefits in COVID-19 patients.
Quinoline (QN) derivatives are often used for the prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. Chloroquine (CQ), a protonated, weakly basic drug, exerts its antimalarial effect mainly by increasing pH and accumulating in the food vacuole of the parasites.
Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been commonly used for the treatment and prevention of malaria, and the treatment of autoimmune diseases for several decades. As their new mechanisms of actions are identified in recent years, CQ and HCQ have wider therapeutic applications, one of which is to treat viral infectious diseases.
An 84-year-old woman with hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and chronic kidney disease presented with fever and was diagnosed with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Malaria and COVID-19 may have similar aspects and seem to have a strong potential for mutual influence. They have already caused millions of deaths, and the regions where malaria is endemic are at risk of further suffering from the consequences of COVID-19 due to mutual side effects, such as less access to treatment for patients with malaria due to the fear of access to healthcare centers leading to diagnostic delays and worse outcomes.
Back in March when COVID-19 hit, some scientists worried malaria cases and deaths might soar. African countries went on lockdown; worried about mass gatherings, they suspended campaigns to distribute mosquito-fighting bed nets. Fears abounded that with clinics overwhelmed by COVID-19, patients would be unable to get treatment for malaria.
Coronavirus pandemic has caused a vast number of deaths worldwide. Thus creating an urgent need to develop effective counteragents against novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Many antiviral drugs have been repurposed for treatment but implicated minimal recovery, which further advanced the need for clearer insights and innovation to derive effective therapeutics. Strategically, Noscapine, an approved antitussive drug with positive effects on lung linings may show favorable outcomes synergistically with antiviral drugs in trials.
At the end of November 2019, a novel coronavirus responsible for respiratory tract infections (COVID-19) emerged in China. Despite drastic containment measures, this virus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), spread in Asia and Europe. The pandemic is ongoing with particular hotspot in Southern Europe and America. Many studies predicted a similar epidemic in Africa as that currently seen in Europe and the United States of America. However, reported data do not confirm these predictions. One of the hypotheses that could explain the later emergence and spread of COVID-19 pandemic in African countries is the use of antimalarial drugs to treat malaria, and more particularly artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).