Recent malaria vaccine trials in endemic areas have yielded disparate results compared to studies conducted in non-endemic areas. A workshop was organized to discuss the differential pre-erythrocytic stage malaria vaccine (Pre-E-Vac) efficacies and underlying protective immunity under various conditions. It was concluded that many factors, including vaccine technology platforms, host genetics or physiologic conditions, and parasite and mosquito vector variations, may all contribute to Pre-E-Vac efficacy.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that first emerged in Wuhan in China's Hubei province has quickly spread to the rest of China and many other countries. Within 3 months, more than 125 000 people have been infected and the death toll had reached over 4600 worldwide on March 12, 2020. In an attempt to contain the virus, the Chinese Government has made unprecedented efforts and invested enormous resources and these containment efforts have stemmed the spread of the disease.