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Brazilian Amazon

Should we care about Plasmodium vivax and HIV co-infection? A systematic review and a cases series from the Brazilian Amazon

January 9, 2021 - 12:17 -- Open Access
Paola López Del-Tejo, Nadia Cubas-Vega, Fernando Val, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:13, 6 January 2021

Malaria and HIV are two important public health issues. However, evidence on HIV-Plasmodium vivax co-infection (HIV/PvCo) is scarce, with most of the available information related to Plasmodium falciparum on the African continent. It is unclear whether HIV can change the clinical course of vivax malaria and increase the risk of complications. In this study, a systematic review of HIV/PvCo studies was performed, and recent cases from the Brazilian Amazon were included.

An Ultra-Sensitive Technique: Using Pv-mtCOX1 qPCR to Detect Early Recurrences of Plasmodium vivax in Patients in the Brazilian Amazon

January 5, 2021 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Barbosa LRA, da Silva EL, Melo GC, et al.
Pathogens. 2020 Dec 30;10(1):E19

Early recurrence of Plasmodium vivax is a challenge for malaria control in the field, particularly because this species is associated with lower parasitemia, which hinders diagnosis and monitoring through blood smear testing. Early recurrences, defined as the persistence of parasites in the peripheral blood despite adequate drug dosages, may arise from resistance to chloroquine. The objective of the study was to estimate early recurrence of P. vivax in the Brazilian Amazon by using a highly-sensitive detection method, in this case, PCR.

Evaluation of Histidine-Rich Proteins 2 and 3 Gene Deletions in Plasmodium falciparum in Endemic Areas of the Brazilian Amazon

January 1, 2021 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Góes L, Chamma-Siqueira N, Peres JM, Nascimento JM, Valle S, Arcanjo AR, Lacerda M, Blume L, Póvoa M, Viana G
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Dec 26;18(1):E123

Histidine-rich proteins 2 and 3 gene (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) deletions affect the efficacy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), compromising the correct identification of the Plasmodium falciparum species. Therefore, molecular surveillance is necessary for the investigation of the actual prevalence of this phenomenon and the extent of the disappearance of these genes in these areas and other South American countries, thus guiding national malaria control programs on the appropriate use of RDTs. This study aimed to evaluate the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion in P. falciparum in endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon.

Community-based approaches for malaria case management in remote communities in the Brazilian Amazon

October 1, 2020 - 15:42 -- Open Access
Prat JGI, Morais P, Claret M, Badia P, Fialho RR, Albajar-Vinas P, Villegas L, Ascaso C
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2020 Sep 23;53:e20200048

Malaria case management is a pivotal intervention in malaria elimination. However, many remote areas in Brazil still lack access to basic health services. This study describes a community-based approach (CBA) for malaria case management in the large remote area of the Jaú National Park (JNP), Amazonas, Brazil.

Recombinant Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite surface protein allelic variants: antibody recognition by individuals from three communities in the Brazilian Amazon

August 24, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Soares IF, López-Camacho C, Lima-Junior JDC, et al.
Sci Rep. 2020 Aug 20;10(1):14020

Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) variants of P. vivax, besides having variations in the protein repetitive portion, can differ from each other in aspects such as geographical distribution, intensity of transmission, vectorial competence and immune response. Such aspects must be considered to P. vivax vaccine development. Therefore, we evaluated the immunogenicity of novel recombinant proteins corresponding to each of the three P. vivax allelic variants (VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like) and of the C-terminal region (shared by all PvCSP variants) in naturally malaria-exposed populations of Brazilian Amazon.

Naturally Acquired Humoral Immunity against Malaria Parasites in Non-Human Primates from the Brazilian Amazon, Cerrado and Atlantic Forest

July 2, 2020 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Monteiro EF, Fernandez-Becerra C, Kirchgatter K, et al.
Pathogens. 2020 Jun 29;9(7):E525

Non-human primates (NHPs) have been shown to be infected by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, the etiological agent of malaria in humans, creating potential risks of zoonotic transmission. Plasmodium brasilianum, a parasite species similar to P. malariae of humans, have been described in NHPs from Central and South America, including Brazil.

NOT Open Access | First Observation of Experimental Plasmodium vivax Infection of Three Malaria Vectors from the Brazilian Amazon

April 10, 2020 - 16:57 -- NOT Open Access
Araújo MDS, Andrade AO, Dos Santos NAC, Castro RB, Pereira DB, Rodrigues MMS, Costa GDS, Pereira Júnior AM, Carvalho LPC, Medeiros JF, Pereira-da-Silva LH
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 Apr 7

Although malaria is endemic to the Amazon region, little is known about the susceptibility of potential parasite vectors in Brazil. Assessing the vector susceptibility of Anopheles mosquitoes will increase our understanding of parasite–vector interactions and aid the design of vector control strategies.

Letter. Driving forces for strengthening the surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon by "training the eyes" of malaria microscopists

March 23, 2020 - 11:46 -- Open Access
Monteiro WM, Barbosa MDGV, Guerra JAO, Melo GC, Barbosa LRA, Machado KVA, Abreu Netto RL, Lacerda MVG
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2020 Mar 16;53:e20190423

Surveillance activities that are well developed in one area may act as driving forces for strengthening surveillance activities in other areas.

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