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Brazilian Amazon

Adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria in a prospective cohort of women from the Brazilian Amazon

May 5, 2021 - 11:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dombrowski JG, Barateiro A, Marinho CRF, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Apr 29;15(4):e0009390

Malaria in Brazil represents one of the highest percentages of Latin America cases, where approximately 84% of infections are attributed to Plasmodium (P.) vivax. Despite the high incidence, many aspects of gestational malaria resulting from P. vivax infections remain poorly studied. As such, we aimed to evaluate the consequences of P. vivax infections during gestation on the health of mothers and their neonates in an endemic area of the Amazon.

Malaria transmission in landscapes with varying deforestation levels and timelines in the Amazon: a longitudinal spatiotemporal study

March 23, 2021 - 14:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Laporta GZ, Ilacqua RC, Sallum MAM, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 19;11(1):6477

The relationship between deforestation and malaria is a spatiotemporal process of variation in Plasmodium incidence in human-dominated Amazonian rural environments. The present study aimed to assess the underlying mechanisms of malarial exposure risk at a fine scale in 5-km2 sites across the Brazilian Amazon, using field-collected data with a longitudinal spatiotemporally structured approach.

Performance of a sensitive haemozoin‐based malaria diagnostic test validated for vivax malaria diagnosis in Brazilian Amazon

March 18, 2021 - 09:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gisely Cardoso de Melo, Rebeca Linhares Abreu Netto, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:146, 12 March 2021

Vivax malaria diagnosis remains a challenge in malaria elimination, with current point of care rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) missing many clinically significant infections because of usually lower peripheral parasitaemia. Haemozoin-detecting assays have been suggested as an alternative to immunoassay platforms but to date have not reached successful field deployment. Haemozoin is a paramagnetic crystal by-product of haemoglobin digestion by malaria parasites and is present in the food vacuole of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic capability of a new haemozoin-detecting platform, the Gazelle™ device with optical microscopy, RDT and PCR in a vivax malaria-endemic region.

NOT Open Access | Diversity of Culturable Bacteria Isolated From the Feces of Wild Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes From the Brazilian Amazon

March 17, 2021 - 09:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Arruda A, Ferreira GEM, Santos Júnior A, Matos NB, Carvalho TS, Ozaki LS, Stabeli RG, Silva AAE
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2021 Mar 11:tjab028

Microorganisms living in the midgut of Anopheles mosquitoes have been studied to fight vector-borne diseases, such as malaria. Studies on the microbiota of the Neotropical Anopheles darlingi, the most important Brazilian vector for malaria, have been reported for the same purpose. Our aims were to isolate and identify culturable bacteria from An. darlingi mosquito guts through their feces and to estimate the species richness and the frequency distribution of the sampled bacteria.

Should we care about Plasmodium vivax and HIV co-infection? A systematic review and a cases series from the Brazilian Amazon

January 9, 2021 - 12:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Paola López Del-Tejo, Nadia Cubas-Vega, Fernando Val, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:13, 6 January 2021

Malaria and HIV are two important public health issues. However, evidence on HIV-Plasmodium vivax co-infection (HIV/PvCo) is scarce, with most of the available information related to Plasmodium falciparum on the African continent. It is unclear whether HIV can change the clinical course of vivax malaria and increase the risk of complications. In this study, a systematic review of HIV/PvCo studies was performed, and recent cases from the Brazilian Amazon were included.

An Ultra-Sensitive Technique: Using Pv-mtCOX1 qPCR to Detect Early Recurrences of Plasmodium vivax in Patients in the Brazilian Amazon

January 5, 2021 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Barbosa LRA, da Silva EL, Melo GC, et al.
Reference: 
Pathogens. 2020 Dec 30;10(1):E19

Early recurrence of Plasmodium vivax is a challenge for malaria control in the field, particularly because this species is associated with lower parasitemia, which hinders diagnosis and monitoring through blood smear testing. Early recurrences, defined as the persistence of parasites in the peripheral blood despite adequate drug dosages, may arise from resistance to chloroquine. The objective of the study was to estimate early recurrence of P. vivax in the Brazilian Amazon by using a highly-sensitive detection method, in this case, PCR.

Evaluation of Histidine-Rich Proteins 2 and 3 Gene Deletions in Plasmodium falciparum in Endemic Areas of the Brazilian Amazon

January 1, 2021 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Góes L, Chamma-Siqueira N, Peres JM, Nascimento JM, Valle S, Arcanjo AR, Lacerda M, Blume L, Póvoa M, Viana G
Reference: 
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Dec 26;18(1):E123

Histidine-rich proteins 2 and 3 gene (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) deletions affect the efficacy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), compromising the correct identification of the Plasmodium falciparum species. Therefore, molecular surveillance is necessary for the investigation of the actual prevalence of this phenomenon and the extent of the disappearance of these genes in these areas and other South American countries, thus guiding national malaria control programs on the appropriate use of RDTs. This study aimed to evaluate the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion in P. falciparum in endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon.

Community-based approaches for malaria case management in remote communities in the Brazilian Amazon

October 1, 2020 - 15:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Prat JGI, Morais P, Claret M, Badia P, Fialho RR, Albajar-Vinas P, Villegas L, Ascaso C
Reference: 
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2020 Sep 23;53:e20200048

Malaria case management is a pivotal intervention in malaria elimination. However, many remote areas in Brazil still lack access to basic health services. This study describes a community-based approach (CBA) for malaria case management in the large remote area of the Jaú National Park (JNP), Amazonas, Brazil.

Recombinant Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite surface protein allelic variants: antibody recognition by individuals from three communities in the Brazilian Amazon

August 24, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Soares IF, López-Camacho C, Lima-Junior JDC, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Aug 20;10(1):14020

Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) variants of P. vivax, besides having variations in the protein repetitive portion, can differ from each other in aspects such as geographical distribution, intensity of transmission, vectorial competence and immune response. Such aspects must be considered to P. vivax vaccine development. Therefore, we evaluated the immunogenicity of novel recombinant proteins corresponding to each of the three P. vivax allelic variants (VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like) and of the C-terminal region (shared by all PvCSP variants) in naturally malaria-exposed populations of Brazilian Amazon.

Naturally Acquired Humoral Immunity against Malaria Parasites in Non-Human Primates from the Brazilian Amazon, Cerrado and Atlantic Forest

July 2, 2020 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Monteiro EF, Fernandez-Becerra C, Kirchgatter K, et al.
Reference: 
Pathogens. 2020 Jun 29;9(7):E525

Non-human primates (NHPs) have been shown to be infected by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, the etiological agent of malaria in humans, creating potential risks of zoonotic transmission. Plasmodium brasilianum, a parasite species similar to P. malariae of humans, have been described in NHPs from Central and South America, including Brazil.

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