Chronic Sedentary lifestyles have been linked to increased odds of stress, elevated anxiety and diminished wellbeing, inducing cytokine production and predispose to hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. In endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections can trigger pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. However, the impact of these infections on cytokine response profiles in individuals engaged in chronic sedentary activities is unknown. This study was aimed at addressing these concerns using a predominantly sedentary population of traders in the Tamale metropolis of Ghana.
Plasmodium vivax malaria is a neglected disease, particularly during pregnancy. Severe vivax malaria is associated with inflammatory responses but in pregnancy immune alterations make it uncertain as to what cytokine signatures predominate, and how the type and quantity of blood immune mediators influence delivery outcomes. We measured the plasma concentrations of a set of thirty-one biomarkers, comprising cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, in 987 plasma samples from a cohort of 572 pregnant women from five malaria-endemic tropical countries and related these concentrations to delivery outcomes (birth weight and hemoglobin levels) and malaria infection.
Malaria presents with unspecific clinical symptoms that frequently overlap with other infectious diseases and is also a risk factor for coinfections, such as non-Typhi Salmonella. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests are sensitive but unable to distinguish between an acute infection requiring treatment and asymptomatic malaria with a concomitant infection. We set out to test whether cytokine profiles could predict disease status and allow the differentiation between malaria and a bacterial bloodstream infection.