Transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) is a promising strategy for malaria elimination. It is hypothesized that mixing or fusing two antigens targeting different stages of sexual development may provide higher transmission-blocking activity than these antigens used individually.
Malaria is a life-threatening epidemic disease with half of the world's population at risk. Although its incidence rate has fallen since 2010, this ratio dramatically stalled between 2014 and 2018. New fast and optimized tools in vaccine analysis and seroconversion testing are critically needed. We developed a clinical diagnostic device based on piezo-actuated nanoresonators that perform as quantitative in situ calibrated nano-bio sensors for specific detection of multiple target molecules in serum samples. The immunoassay successfully diagnoses humoral immune responses induced by malaria vaccine candidates and reveals the timeline and stage of the infection.
Profiling immune responses induced by either infection or vaccination can provide insight into identification of correlates of protection. Furthermore, profiling of serological responses can be used to identify biomarkers indicative of exposure to pathogens. Conducting such immune surveillance requires readout methods that are high-throughput, robust, and require small sample volumes. While the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the classical readout method for assessing serological responses, the advent of multiplex assays has significantly increased the throughput and capacity for immunoprofiling. This report describes the development and assay performance (sensitivity, linearity of detection, requirement for multiple dilutions for each sample, intra- and inter-assay variability) of an electro-chemiluminescence (ECLIA)-based multiplex assay.
The ability to report vaccine-induced IgG responses in terms of µg/mL, as opposed arbitrary units (AU), enables a more informed interpretation of the magnitude of the immune response, and better comparison between vaccines targeting different antigens. However, these interpretations rely on the accuracy of the methodology, which is used to generate ELISA data in µg/mL. In a previous clinical trial of a vaccine targeting the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) from Plasmodium falciparum, three laboratories (Oxford, NIH and WRAIR) reported ELISA data in µg/mL that were correlated but not concordant. This current study sought to harmonize the methodology used to generate a conversion factor (CF) for ELISA analysis of human anti-AMA1 IgG responses across the three laboratories.