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chemoprevention

Seasonal malaria vaccination: protocol of a phase 3 trial of seasonal vaccination with the RTS,S/AS01(E) vaccine, seasonal malaria chemoprevention and the combination of vaccination and chemoprevention

September 16, 2020 - 13:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chandramohan D, Dicko A, Greenwood B, et al.
Reference: 
BMJ Open. 2020 Sep 15;10(9):e035433

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SP+AQ) is effective but does not provide complete protection against clinical malaria. The RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine provides a high level of protection shortly after vaccination, but this wanes rapidly. Such a vaccine could be an alternative or additive to SMC. This trial aims to determine whether seasonal vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E vaccine could be an alternative to SMC and whether a combination of the two interventions would provide added benefits.

Two-Year Scale-Up of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention Reduced Malaria Morbidity among Children in the Health District of Koutiala, Mali

September 16, 2020 - 13:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maiga H, Gaudart J, Djimde AA, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 11;17(18):E6639

Previous controlled studies demonstrated seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) reduces malaria morbidity by >80% in children aged 3-59 months. Here, we assessed malaria morbidity after large-scale SMC implementation during a pilot campaign in the health district of Koutiala, Mali.

Evaluation of seasonal malaria chemoprevention in two areas of intense seasonal malaria transmission: Secondary analysis of a household-randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Houndé District, Burkina Faso and Bougouni District, Mali

August 25, 2020 - 07:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cairns ME, Sagara I, Dicko A, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Aug 21;17(8):e1003214

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is now widely deployed in the Sahel, including several countries that are major contributors to the global burden of malaria. Consequently, it is important to understand whether SMC continues to provide a high level of protection and how SMC might be improved. SMC was evaluated using data from a large, household-randomised trial in Houndé, Burkina Faso and Bougouni, Mali.

Investigating selected host and parasite factors potentially impacting upon seasonal malaria chemoprevention in Bama, Burkina Faso

July 7, 2020 - 14:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fabrice A. Somé, Thomas Bazié, Hanna Y. Ehrlich, Justin Goodwin, Aine Lehane, Catherine Neya, Kabré Zachari, Martina Wade, Jean-Marie Ouattara, Brian D. Foy, Roch K. Dabiré, Sunil Parikh and Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:238, 6 July 2020

Since 2014, seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with amodiaquine–sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (AQ–SP) has been implemented on a large scale during the high malaria transmission season in Burkina Faso. This paper reports the prevalence of microscopic and submicroscopic malaria infection at the outset and after the first round of SMC in children under 5 years old in Bama, Burkina Faso, as well as host and parasite factors involved in mediating the efficacy and tolerability of SMC.

Effect of routine seasonal malaria chemoprevention on malaria trends in children under 5 years in Dangassa, Mali

April 6, 2020 - 16:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Drissa Konaté, Sory I. Diawara, Mahamadou Diakité, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:137, 6 April 2020

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a new strategy to prevent malaria in children under 5 years old. It has been recommended by the World Health Organization since 2012 in malaria-endemic areas with seasonal transmission. This study aimed to assess the changes in malaria indicators through two consecutive years of SMC routine implementation in children under 5 years old in Dangassa, where malaria is endemic with a long and high transmission season.

Systematic review of statistical methods for safety data in malaria chemoprevention in pregnancy trials

March 24, 2020 - 11:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Noel Patson, Mavuto Mukaka, Tobias Chirwa, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:119, 20 March 2020

Drug safety assessments in clinical trials present unique analytical challenges. Some of these include adjusting for individual follow-up time, repeated measurements of multiple outcomes and missing data among others. Furthermore, pre-specifying appropriate analysis becomes difficult as some safety endpoints are unexpected. Although existing guidelines such as CONSORT encourage thorough reporting of adverse events (AEs) in clinical trials, they provide limited details for safety data analysis. The limited guidelines may influence suboptimal analysis by failing to account for some analysis challenges above. A typical example where such challenges exist are trials of anti-malarial drugs for malaria prevention during pregnancy. Lack of proper standardized evaluation of the safety of antimalarial drugs has limited the ability to draw conclusions about safety. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to establish the current practice in statistical analysis for preventive antimalarial drug safety in pregnancy.

NOT Open Access | Effect of Adding Azithromycin to the Antimalarials used for Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention on the Nutritional Status of African Children

March 18, 2020 - 14:37 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Gore-Langton GR, Cairns M, Ouedraogo JB, et al.
Reference: 
Trop Med Int Health. 2020 Mar 12

Mass administration of azithromycin has reduced mortality in children in sub‐Saharan Africa but its mode of action is not well characterised. A recent trial found that azithromycin given alongside seasonal malaria chemoprevention was not associated with a reduction in mortality or hospital admissions in young children. We investigated the effect of azithromycin on the nutritional status of children enrolled in this study.

Impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention on hospital admissions and mortality in children under 5 years of age in Ouelessebougou, Mali

March 9, 2020 - 13:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Djibrilla Issiaka, Amadou Barry, Tiangoua Traore, Boubacar Diarra, David Cook, Mohamed Keita, Issaka Sagara, Patrick Duffy, Michal Fried and Alassane Dicko
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:103, 3 March 2020

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention is widely implemented in Sahel and sub-Sahel countries in Africa. Few studies have assessed the impact of the SMC on hospital admission and death when it is implemented in the health system. This retrospective study assessed the impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) on hospitalizations and deaths of children under 5 years of age during the second year of implementation of SMC in the health district of Ouelessebougou in Mali.

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