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chemoprevention

Evidence that seasonal malaria chemoprevention with SPAQ influences blood and pre-erythrocytic stage antibody responses of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Niger

January 6, 2021 - 11:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lamine Mahaman Moustapha, Rafiou Adamou, Maman Laminou Ibrahim, Mariama Abdoulaye Louis Padounou, Abdoulaye Diallo, David Courtin, Jean Testa and Jean Louis Abdourahim Ndiaye
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:1, 1 January 2021

In endemic areas, children develop slowly and naturally anti-Plasmodium antibodies and become semi-immune. Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine + amodiaquine (SPAQ) is a new strategy to reduce malaria morbidity in West African young children. However, SMC may impact on the natural acquisition of anti-Plasmodium immunity. This paper evaluates the effect of SMC with SPAQ on antibody concentration in young children from Niger.

COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, prevention behaviours and misinformation in the context of an adapted seasonal malaria chemoprevention campaign in six northern Nigerian States

December 15, 2020 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Richardson S, Ibinaiye T, Nikau J, Oresanya O, Marasciulo M, Roca-Feltrer A, Rassi C, Adesoro O
Reference: 
Trop Med Health. 2020 Dec 14;48(1):101

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine is an efficacious intervention for protection of children against Plasmodium falciparum malaria during the rainy season. In response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, Malaria Consortium adapted its SMC delivery model to ensure safety of distributors, data collectors and beneficiaries. We conducted a SMC monitoring survey in July 2020 in the states of Bauchi, Jigawa, Kano, Katsina, Sokoto and Yobe, with questions on COVID-19 prevention behaviours and symptoms, and belief in misinformation. We investigated the associations between receipt of information on COVID-19 by different sources, including from SMC distributors, and these three outcomes using logistic generalised estimating equations. We also considered moderation of effectiveness of message delivery by SMC distributors and adherence to use of face coverings.

A microplanning model to improve door-to-door health service delivery: the case of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention in Sub-Saharan African villages

December 9, 2020 - 07:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ouédraogo AL, Zhang J, Tinto H, Valéa I, Wenger EA
Reference: 
BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 Dec 7;20(1):1128

Malaria incidence has plateaued in Sub-Saharan Africa despite Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention’s (SMC) introduction. Community health workers (CHW) use a door-to-door delivery strategy to treat children with SMC drugs, but for SMC to be as effective as in clinical trials, coverage must be high over successive seasons.

Effectiveness of seasonal malaria chemoprevention at scale in west and central Africa: an observational study

December 8, 2020 - 10:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
ACCESS-SMC Partnership
Reference: 
Lancet. 2020 Dec 5;396(10265):1829-1840

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) aims to prevent malaria in children during the high malaria transmission season. The Achieving Catalytic Expansion of SMC in the Sahel (ACCESS-SMC) project sought to remove barriers to the scale-up of SMC in seven countries in 2015 and 2016. We evaluated the project, including coverage, effectiveness of the intervention, safety, feasibility, drug resistance, and cost-effectiveness.

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention: closing the know-do gap

December 8, 2020 - 10:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ashley EA, Yeka A
Reference: 
Lancet. 2020 Dec 5;396(10265):1778-1779

Malaria continues to impact on young lives, causing sickness, impaired school performance, disability, and preventable death, with little progress made to reduce the overall burden since 2014. In 2019, 274 000, or 67%, of all malaria deaths were in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO has recommended seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) for malaria control in areas across the Sahel sub-region since 2012.

Malaria Chemoprevention in the Postdischarge Management of Severe Anemia

December 3, 2020 - 13:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kwambai TK, Dhabangi A, Ter Kuile FO, et al.
Reference: 
N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 3;383(23):2242-2254

Children who have been hospitalized with severe anemia in areas of Africa in which malaria is endemic have a high risk of readmission and death within 6 months after discharge. No prevention strategy specifically addresses this period.

Estimating malaria chemoprevention and vector control coverage using program and campaign data: A scoping review of current practices and opportunities

December 2, 2020 - 08:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nice J, Nahusenay H, Eckert E, Eisele TP, Ashton RA
Reference: 
J Glob Health. 2020 Dec;10(2):020413

Accurate estimation of intervention coverage is a vital component of malaria program monitoring and evaluation, both for process evaluation (how well program targets are achieved), and impact evaluation (whether intervention coverage had an impact on malaria burden). There is growing interest in maximizing the utility of program data to generate interim estimates of intervention coverage in the periods between large-scale cross-sectional surveys (the gold standard). As such, this study aimed to identify relevant concepts and themes that may guide future optimization of intervention coverage estimation using routinely collected data, or data collected during and following intervention campaigns, with a particular focus on strategies to define the denominator.

Seasonal malaria vaccination: protocol of a phase 3 trial of seasonal vaccination with the RTS,S/AS01(E) vaccine, seasonal malaria chemoprevention and the combination of vaccination and chemoprevention

September 16, 2020 - 13:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chandramohan D, Dicko A, Greenwood B, et al.
Reference: 
BMJ Open. 2020 Sep 15;10(9):e035433

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SP+AQ) is effective but does not provide complete protection against clinical malaria. The RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine provides a high level of protection shortly after vaccination, but this wanes rapidly. Such a vaccine could be an alternative or additive to SMC. This trial aims to determine whether seasonal vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E vaccine could be an alternative to SMC and whether a combination of the two interventions would provide added benefits.

Two-Year Scale-Up of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention Reduced Malaria Morbidity among Children in the Health District of Koutiala, Mali

September 16, 2020 - 13:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maiga H, Gaudart J, Djimde AA, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 11;17(18):E6639

Previous controlled studies demonstrated seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) reduces malaria morbidity by >80% in children aged 3-59 months. Here, we assessed malaria morbidity after large-scale SMC implementation during a pilot campaign in the health district of Koutiala, Mali.

Evaluation of seasonal malaria chemoprevention in two areas of intense seasonal malaria transmission: Secondary analysis of a household-randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Houndé District, Burkina Faso and Bougouni District, Mali

August 25, 2020 - 07:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cairns ME, Sagara I, Dicko A, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Aug 21;17(8):e1003214

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is now widely deployed in the Sahel, including several countries that are major contributors to the global burden of malaria. Consequently, it is important to understand whether SMC continues to provide a high level of protection and how SMC might be improved. SMC was evaluated using data from a large, household-randomised trial in Houndé, Burkina Faso and Bougouni, Mali.

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