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Papua New Guinea

SNP barcodes provide higher resolution than microsatellite markers to measure Plasmodium vivax population genetics

October 20, 2020 - 16:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abebe A. Fola, Eline Kattenberg, Zahra Razook, Dulcie Lautu-Gumal, Stuart Lee, Somya Mehra, Melanie Bahlo, James Kazura, Leanne J. Robinson, Moses Laman, Ivo Mueller and Alyssa E. Barry
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:375, 20 October 2020

Genomic surveillance of malaria parasite populations has the potential to inform control strategies and to monitor the impact of interventions. Barcodes comprising large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are accurate and efficient genotyping tools, however may need to be tailored to specific malaria transmission settings, since ‘universal’ barcodes can lack resolution at the local scale. A SNP barcode was developed that captures the diversity and structure of Plasmodium vivax populations of Papua New Guinea (PNG) for research and surveillance.

Not Open Access | Monitoring Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax using microsatellite markers indicates limited changes in population structure after substantial transmission decline in Papua New Guinea

September 30, 2020 - 11:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kattenberg JH, Razook Z, Barry AE, et al.
Reference: 
Mol Ecol. 2020 Sep 28

Monitoring the genetic structure of pathogen populations may be an economical and sensitive approach to quantify the impact of control on transmission dynamics, highlighting the need for a better understanding of changes in population genetic parameters as transmission declines. Here we describe the first population genetic analysis of the major human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) following nationwide distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN) in Papua New Guinea (PNG).

NOT Open Access | Decreased Mortality of falciparum Malaria in Anemic Prisoners of War

September 10, 2020 - 08:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Shanks GD
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 8

Modern clinical trials have suggested that anemia protects against malaria mortality. Military records of the Second World War in Asia were examined to see if there was support for this hypothesis. When relatively well-nourished Imperial Japanese Navy sailors captured on Nauru (n = 799) were imprisoned on the Fauro Islands, 26% died from falciparum malaria.

Utility of ultra-sensitive qPCR to detect Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections under different transmission intensities

September 5, 2020 - 14:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maria Gruenberg, Clara Antunes Moniz, Ingrid Felger, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:319, 3 September 2020

The use of molecular diagnostics has revealed an unexpectedly large number of asymptomatic low-density malaria infections in many malaria endemic areas. This study compared the gains in parasite prevalence obtained by the use of ultra-sensitive (us)-qPCR as compared to standard qPCR in cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand, Brazil and Papua New Guinea (PNG). The compared assays differed in the copy number of qPCR targets in the parasite genome.

Decreased bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets and the resurgence of malaria in Papua New Guinea

July 21, 2020 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vinit R, Timinao L, Karl S, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2020 Jul 20;11(1):3646

Papua New Guinea (PNG) has the highest malaria transmission outside of Africa. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are believed to have helped to reduce average malaria prevalence in PNG from 16% in 2008 to 1% in 2014. Since 2015 malaria in PNG has resurged significantly.

NOT Open Access | Therapeutically-Rational Exchange (T-REX) of Gerbich-Negative Red Blood Cells Can be Evaluated in Papua New Guinea as "a Rescue Adjunct" for Patients with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

June 23, 2020 - 16:22 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jajosky RP, Jajosky AN, Jajosky PG
Reference: 
Ther Apher Dial. 2020 Jun 21q

“Conventional exchange transfusion” ‐ that delivers nondescript “standard issue” units of red blood cells (RBCs) ‐ is used worldwide to rescue dying Plasmodium falciparum (Pf ) malaria patients. Recently, exchanging special malaria‐resistant RBCs has been recommended to prevent random delivery of malaria‐susceptible RBCs that promote Pf infection.

The epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea, pre- and post-implementation of national malaria control efforts

June 8, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Johanna H. Kattenberg, Dulcie L. Gumal, Leanne J. Robinson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:198, 5 June 2020

In the past decade, national malaria control efforts in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have received renewed support, facilitating nationwide distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), as well as improvements in access to parasite-confirmed diagnosis and effective artemisinin-combination therapy in 2011–2012.

Probe-based multiplex qPCR identifies blood-meal hosts in Anopheles mosquitoes from Papua New Guinea

March 3, 2020 - 14:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Keven JB, Artzberger G, Gillies ML, Mbewe RB, Walker ED
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Feb 28;13(1):111

Determination of blood-meal hosts in blood-fed female Anopheles mosquitoes is important for evaluating vectorial capacity of vector populations and assessing effectiveness of vector control measures. Sensitive molecular methods are needed to detect traces of host blood in mosquito samples, to differentiate hosts, and to detect mixed host blood meals. This paper describes a molecular probe-based quantitative PCR for identifying blood-meal hosts in Anopheles malaria vectors from Papua New Guinea.

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