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Papua New Guinea

Spatial prediction of malaria prevalence in Papua New Guinea: a comparison of Bayesian decision network and multivariate regression modelling approaches for improved accuracy in prevalence prediction

June 16, 2021 - 13:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Eimear Cleary, Manuel W. Hetzel, Paul Siba, Colleen L. Lau and Archie C. A. Clements
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:269, 13 June 2021

Considerable progress towards controlling malaria has been made in Papua New Guinea through the national malaria control programme’s free distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets, improved diagnosis with rapid diagnostic tests and improved access to artemisinin combination therapy. Predictive prevalence maps can help to inform targeted interventions and monitor changes in malaria epidemiology over time as control efforts continue. This study aims to compare the predictive performance of prevalence maps generated using Bayesian decision network (BDN) models and multilevel logistic regression models (a type of generalized linear model, GLM) in terms of malaria spatial risk prediction accuracy.

NOT Open Access | Quality Control of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets: Are We Neglecting It

March 30, 2021 - 14:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Karl S, Katusele M, Freeman TW, Moore SJ
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Mar 25:S1471-4922(21)00056-8

Over 2.2 billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria control have been delivered to recipient countries. LLINs are the largest single item in the global malaria control budget. To be eligible for donor-funded procurement and distribution schemes, LLIN products must attain and retain World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification status by passing safety, quality, and efficacy benchmarks.

Magneto-optical diagnosis of symptomatic malaria in Papua New Guinea

February 15, 2021 - 15:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Arndt L, Koleala T, Karl S, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 Feb 12;12(1):969

Improved methods for malaria diagnosis are urgently needed. Here, we evaluate a novel method named rotating-crystal magneto-optical detection (RMOD) in 956 suspected malaria patients in Papua New Guinea. RMOD tests can be conducted within minutes and at low cost. We systematically evaluate the capability of RMOD to detect infections by directly comparing it with expert light microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests and polymerase chain reaction on capillary blood samples.

SNP barcodes provide higher resolution than microsatellite markers to measure Plasmodium vivax population genetics

October 20, 2020 - 16:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abebe A. Fola, Eline Kattenberg, Zahra Razook, Dulcie Lautu-Gumal, Stuart Lee, Somya Mehra, Melanie Bahlo, James Kazura, Leanne J. Robinson, Moses Laman, Ivo Mueller and Alyssa E. Barry
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:375, 20 October 2020

Genomic surveillance of malaria parasite populations has the potential to inform control strategies and to monitor the impact of interventions. Barcodes comprising large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are accurate and efficient genotyping tools, however may need to be tailored to specific malaria transmission settings, since ‘universal’ barcodes can lack resolution at the local scale. A SNP barcode was developed that captures the diversity and structure of Plasmodium vivax populations of Papua New Guinea (PNG) for research and surveillance.

Not Open Access | Monitoring Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax using microsatellite markers indicates limited changes in population structure after substantial transmission decline in Papua New Guinea

September 30, 2020 - 11:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kattenberg JH, Razook Z, Barry AE, et al.
Reference: 
Mol Ecol. 2020 Sep 28

Monitoring the genetic structure of pathogen populations may be an economical and sensitive approach to quantify the impact of control on transmission dynamics, highlighting the need for a better understanding of changes in population genetic parameters as transmission declines. Here we describe the first population genetic analysis of the major human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) following nationwide distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN) in Papua New Guinea (PNG).

NOT Open Access | Decreased Mortality of falciparum Malaria in Anemic Prisoners of War

September 10, 2020 - 08:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Shanks GD
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 8

Modern clinical trials have suggested that anemia protects against malaria mortality. Military records of the Second World War in Asia were examined to see if there was support for this hypothesis. When relatively well-nourished Imperial Japanese Navy sailors captured on Nauru (n = 799) were imprisoned on the Fauro Islands, 26% died from falciparum malaria.

Utility of ultra-sensitive qPCR to detect Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections under different transmission intensities

September 5, 2020 - 14:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maria Gruenberg, Clara Antunes Moniz, Ingrid Felger, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:319, 3 September 2020

The use of molecular diagnostics has revealed an unexpectedly large number of asymptomatic low-density malaria infections in many malaria endemic areas. This study compared the gains in parasite prevalence obtained by the use of ultra-sensitive (us)-qPCR as compared to standard qPCR in cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand, Brazil and Papua New Guinea (PNG). The compared assays differed in the copy number of qPCR targets in the parasite genome.

Decreased bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets and the resurgence of malaria in Papua New Guinea

July 21, 2020 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vinit R, Timinao L, Karl S, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2020 Jul 20;11(1):3646

Papua New Guinea (PNG) has the highest malaria transmission outside of Africa. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are believed to have helped to reduce average malaria prevalence in PNG from 16% in 2008 to 1% in 2014. Since 2015 malaria in PNG has resurged significantly.

NOT Open Access | Therapeutically-Rational Exchange (T-REX) of Gerbich-Negative Red Blood Cells Can be Evaluated in Papua New Guinea as "a Rescue Adjunct" for Patients with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

June 23, 2020 - 16:22 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jajosky RP, Jajosky AN, Jajosky PG
Reference: 
Ther Apher Dial. 2020 Jun 21q

“Conventional exchange transfusion” ‐ that delivers nondescript “standard issue” units of red blood cells (RBCs) ‐ is used worldwide to rescue dying Plasmodium falciparum (Pf ) malaria patients. Recently, exchanging special malaria‐resistant RBCs has been recommended to prevent random delivery of malaria‐susceptible RBCs that promote Pf infection.

The epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea, pre- and post-implementation of national malaria control efforts

June 8, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Johanna H. Kattenberg, Dulcie L. Gumal, Leanne J. Robinson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:198, 5 June 2020

In the past decade, national malaria control efforts in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have received renewed support, facilitating nationwide distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), as well as improvements in access to parasite-confirmed diagnosis and effective artemisinin-combination therapy in 2011–2012.

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