To assess the antiplasmodial activity of 24 extracts from Palicourea and Psychotria genera, along with the targeted LC–MS metabolite profiling, as well as identification of the main metabolites in the bioactive extracts.
Five known compounds (1-5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6-8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum.
A total synthesis of dehydroantofine was achieved by employing a novel, regioselective azahetero Diels-Alder reaction of the easily accessible 3,5-dichloro-2 H -1,4-oxazin-2-one with 4-ethynyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene as a key step.
Malaria remains the top infectious disease threat facing the U.S. military in many forward operating environments. Compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis remains a critical component in preventing malaria in the deployed Service Member. Studies of previous military operations show that compliance is consistently higher with weekly versus daily dosing regimens. Current FDA approved weekly chemoprophylaxis options have contraindications that can limit prescribing. The combination of chloroquine (CQ) with azithromycin (AZ) has previously been shown to be an efficacious treatment option for malaria, has pharmacokinetics compatible with weekly dosing, and has shown synergy when combined in vitro.
Chloroquine (CQ) is generally prescribed as the front-line antimalarial drug of choice to treat Plasmodium vivax infections; however, some clinical CQ-resistant P. vivax isolates have been indigenously reported around the world during the last decade.