Malaria was eliminated from Sri Lanka in 2012, and since then 50–60 imported malaria cases have been reported yearly. The country has remained malaria-free since, except for a single case of indigenous malaria in 2018. Blood donors are routinely screened for malaria, and transfusion malaria has not been reported in the country since 1966.
Sri Lanka reported the last case of indigenous malaria in October 2012, and received malaria-free certification from WHO in September 2016. Malaria cases have since, shifted from indigenous to imported, and the country remains receptive and vulnerable to malaria. A case-based epidemiological study was conducted on all imported malaria cases reported in the country in 2015 and 2016 with the aim of profiling imported malaria to improve the effectiveness of the surveillance and case management system for malaria.
Sri Lanka sustained its malaria-free status by implementing, among other interventions, three core case detection strategies namely Passive Case Detection (PCD), Reactive Case Detection (RACD) and Proactive Case Detection (PACD). The outcomes of these strategies were analysed in terms of their effectiveness in detecting malaria infections for the period from 2017 to 2019.
Avian blood parasites have been shown to have significant health effects on avifauna worldwide. Sri Lanka, a tropical island rich with resident and migratory birds, has not been properly evaluated for avian blood parasites or their vectors. We investigated the presence of avian haemoparasites in Sri Lankan birds and the potential mosquito vectors of those pathogens. Blood samples were collected from local/migratory birds captured by standard mist nets from Anawilundawa bird sanctuary, Hanthana mountain range, and the University of Peradeniya park. Mosquitoes were collected from Halgolla forest reserve and the forest patches in Kurunegala and Gampola areas in addition to the above mist-netting localities.
This case report discusses recrudescence of imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria, in the presence of Kelch13 (K13) propeller mutation, in a patient diagnosed and fully treated with artemether-lumefantrine under direct observation in Sri Lanka. This patient presented with a history of 5 days of fever following his arrival from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). He had visited Rwanda 1 week before arrival to Sri Lanka.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact on other health programmes in countries, including on malaria, and is currently under much discussion. As many countries are accelerating efforts to eliminate malaria or to prevent the re-establishment of malaria from recently eliminated countries, the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to cause major interruptions to ongoing anti-malaria operations and risk jeopardizing the gains that have been made so far.
Following malaria elimination, Sri Lanka was free from indigenous transmission for six consecutive years, until the first introduced case was reported in December 2018. The source of transmission (index case) was a member of a group of 32 migrant workers from India and the location of transmission was their residence reporting a high prevalence of the primary vector for malaria. Despite extensive vector control the situation was highly susceptible to onward transmission if another of the group developed malaria. Therefore, Mass Radical Treatment (MRT) of the group of workers for Plasmodium vivax malaria was undertaken to mitigate this risk.
Sri Lanka was certified as a malaria-free nation in 2016; however, imported malaria cases continue to be reported. Evidence-based information on the genetic structure/diversity of the parasite populations is useful to understand the population history, assess the trends in transmission patterns, as well as to predict threatening phenotypes that may be introduced and spread in parasite populations disrupting elimination programmes. This study used a previously developed Plasmodium vivax single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) barcode to evaluate the population dynamics of P. vivax parasite isolates from Sri Lanka and to assess the ability of the SNP barcode for tracking the parasites to its origin.
Leishmania donovani-induced and sand fly-transmitted leishmaniasis is a growing health problem in Sri Lanka. Limited knowledge on biological and behavioral characteristics of probable vector Phlebotomus argentipes hinders disease control. Here, insecticide susceptibility patterns of P. argentipes were investigated with exploration of probable underlying resistance mechanisms.
Malaria was eliminated from Sri Lanka in 2013. However, the influx of infected travelers and the presence of potent anopheline vectors can re-initiate transmission in Jaffna city, which is separated by a narrow strait from the malaria-endemic Indian state of Tamil Nadu.