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A human monoclonal antibody blocks malaria transmission and defines a highly conserved neutralizing epitope on gametes

March 23, 2021 - 14:35 -- Open Access
Coelho CH, Tang WK, Duffy PE, et al.
Nat Commun. 2021 Mar 19;12(1):1750

Malaria elimination requires tools that interrupt parasite transmission. Here, we characterize B cell receptor responses among Malian adults vaccinated against the first domain of the cysteine-rich 230 kDa gamete surface protein Pfs230, a key protein in sexual stage development of P. falciparum parasites.

Estimating the potential impact of Attractive Targeted Sugar Baits (ATSBs) as a new vector control tool for Plasmodium falciparum malaria

March 18, 2021 - 09:25 -- Open Access
Keith J. Fraser, Lazaro Mwandigha, Sekou F. Traore, Mohamed M. Traore, Seydou Doumbia, Amy Junnila, Edita Revay, John C. Beier, John M. Marshall, Azra C. Ghani and Gunter Müller
Malaria Journal 2021 20:151, 17 March 2021

Attractive targeted sugar baits (ATSBs) are a promising new tool for malaria control as they can target outdoor-feeding mosquito populations, in contrast to current vector control tools which predominantly target indoor-feeding mosquitoes.

Cost-effectiveness of district-wide seasonal malaria chemoprevention when implemented through routine malaria control programme in Kita, Mali using fixed point distribution

March 10, 2021 - 14:39 -- Open Access
Halimatou Diawara, Patrick Walker, Lesong Conteh, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:128, 4 March 2021

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a strategy for malaria control recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 2012 for Sahelian countries. The Mali National Malaria Control Programme adopted a plan for pilot implementation and nationwide scale-up by 2016. Given that SMC is a relatively new approach, there is an urgent need to assess the costs and cost effectiveness of SMC when implemented through the routine health system to inform decisions on resource allocation.

Indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in two ecological settings in rural Mali: implications for vector control

March 10, 2021 - 14:37 -- Open Access
Moussa Keïta, Sidy Doumbia, Mamadou B. Coulibaly, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:127, 4 March 2021

Implementation and upscale of effective malaria vector control strategies necessitates understanding the multi-factorial aspects of transmission patterns. The primary aims of this study are to determine the vector composition, biting rates, trophic preference, and the overall importance of distinguishing outdoor versus indoor malaria transmission through a study at two communities in rural Mali.

A Decline and Age Shift in Malaria Incidence in Rural Mali following Implementation of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention and Indoor Residual Spraying

March 2, 2021 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Coulibaly D, Guindo B, Thera MA, et al.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 1:tpmd200622

Many African countries have reported declines in malaria incidence, attributed to the implementation of control strategies. In Mali, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was introduced in 2004, and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) have been partially distributed free of charge since 2007. In the Malian town of Bandiagara, a study conducted from 2009 to 2013 showed a stable incidence of malaria compared with 1999, despite the implementation of ACTs and LLINs. Since 2016, seasonal malaria chemoprevention has been scaled up across the country.

Pfs230 yields higher malaria transmission-blocking vaccine activity than Pfs25 in humans but not mice

February 10, 2021 - 10:03 -- Open Access
Healy SA, Anderson CF, Duffy PE, et al.
J Clin Invest. 2021 Feb 9:146221

Vaccines that block human-to-mosquito Plasmodium transmission are needed for malaria eradication and clinical trials have targeted zygote antigen Pfs25 for decades. We reported that a Pfs25 protein-protein conjugate vaccine formulated in alum adjuvant induced significant serum functional activity in both US and Malian adults. However, antibody titers declined rapidly, and transmission-reducing activity required four vaccine doses. Functional immunogenicity and durability must be improved before advancing TBV further in clinical development. We hypothesized that the pre-fertilization protein Pfs230 alone or in combination with Pfs25 would improve functional activity.

Monitoring of the Sensitivity In Vivo of Plasmodium falciparum to Artemether-Lumefantrine in Mali

January 31, 2021 - 15:43 -- Open Access
Diarra M, Coulibaly D, Sagara I, et al.
Trop Med Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 24;6(1):13

In Mali, since 2007, artemether-lumefantrine has been the first choice against uncomplicated malaria. Despite its effectiveness, a rapid selection of markers of resistance to partner drugs has been documented. This work evaluated the treatment according to the World Health Organization's standard 28-day treatment method.

Persistence of mRNA indicative of Plasmodium falciparum ring-stage parasites 42 days after artemisinin and non-artemisinin combination therapy in naturally infected Malians

January 13, 2021 - 10:06 -- Open Access
Almahamoudou Mahamar, Kjerstin Lanke, Michelle E. Roh, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:34, 9 January 2021

Malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa relies upon prompt case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Ring-stage parasite mRNA, measured by sbp1 quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), was previously reported to persist after ACT treatment and hypothesized to reflect temporary arrest of the growth of ring-stage parasites (dormancy) following exposure to artemisinins. Here, the persistence of ring-stage parasitaemia following ACT and non-ACT treatment was examined.

Effect of 4 years of seasonal malaria chemoprevention on the acquisition of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in Ouelessebougou, Mali

January 13, 2021 - 08:20 -- Open Access
Almahamoudou Mahamar, Djibrilla Issiaka, Alassane Dicko, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:23, 7 January 2021

More than 200 million people live in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission where Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) was recommended in 2012 by WHO. This strategy is now implemented widely and protected more than 19 million children in 2018. It was previously reported that exposure to SMC reduced antibody levels to AMA1, MSP-142 and CSP, but the duration of exposure to SMC up to three 3 years, had no effect on antibody levels to MSP-142 and CSP.

NOT Open Access | Performance of pirimiphos-methyl based Indoor Residual Spraying on entomological parameters of malaria transmission in the pyrethroid resistance region of Koulikoro, Mali

January 6, 2021 - 12:41 -- NOT Open Access
Keïta M, Sogoba N, Traoré B, Kané F, Coulibaly B, Traoré SF, Doumbia S
Acta Trop. 2021 Jan 2:105820

Malaria vector control in Mali relies heavily on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in selected districts. As part of strengthening vector control strategies in Koulikoro district, the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) through the support from the US President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) has strategically driven the implementation of IRS, with the LLINs coverage also rising from 93.3% and 98.2%. Due to the increased reports of vector resistance to both pyrethroid and carbamates, there was a campaign for the use of pirimiphos-methyl, an organophosphate at Koulikoro between 2015 and 2016.


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