Malaria elimination requires tools that interrupt parasite transmission. Here, we characterize B cell receptor responses among Malian adults vaccinated against the first domain of the cysteine-rich 230 kDa gamete surface protein Pfs230, a key protein in sexual stage development of P. falciparum parasites.
Attractive targeted sugar baits (ATSBs) are a promising new tool for malaria control as they can target outdoor-feeding mosquito populations, in contrast to current vector control tools which predominantly target indoor-feeding mosquitoes.
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a strategy for malaria control recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 2012 for Sahelian countries. The Mali National Malaria Control Programme adopted a plan for pilot implementation and nationwide scale-up by 2016. Given that SMC is a relatively new approach, there is an urgent need to assess the costs and cost effectiveness of SMC when implemented through the routine health system to inform decisions on resource allocation.
Implementation and upscale of effective malaria vector control strategies necessitates understanding the multi-factorial aspects of transmission patterns. The primary aims of this study are to determine the vector composition, biting rates, trophic preference, and the overall importance of distinguishing outdoor versus indoor malaria transmission through a study at two communities in rural Mali.
Many African countries have reported declines in malaria incidence, attributed to the implementation of control strategies. In Mali, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was introduced in 2004, and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) have been partially distributed free of charge since 2007. In the Malian town of Bandiagara, a study conducted from 2009 to 2013 showed a stable incidence of malaria compared with 1999, despite the implementation of ACTs and LLINs. Since 2016, seasonal malaria chemoprevention has been scaled up across the country.
Vaccines that block human-to-mosquito Plasmodium transmission are needed for malaria eradication and clinical trials have targeted zygote antigen Pfs25 for decades. We reported that a Pfs25 protein-protein conjugate vaccine formulated in alum adjuvant induced significant serum functional activity in both US and Malian adults. However, antibody titers declined rapidly, and transmission-reducing activity required four vaccine doses. Functional immunogenicity and durability must be improved before advancing TBV further in clinical development. We hypothesized that the pre-fertilization protein Pfs230 alone or in combination with Pfs25 would improve functional activity.
In Mali, since 2007, artemether-lumefantrine has been the first choice against uncomplicated malaria. Despite its effectiveness, a rapid selection of markers of resistance to partner drugs has been documented. This work evaluated the treatment according to the World Health Organization's standard 28-day treatment method.
Malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa relies upon prompt case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Ring-stage parasite mRNA, measured by sbp1 quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), was previously reported to persist after ACT treatment and hypothesized to reflect temporary arrest of the growth of ring-stage parasites (dormancy) following exposure to artemisinins. Here, the persistence of ring-stage parasitaemia following ACT and non-ACT treatment was examined.
More than 200 million people live in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission where Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) was recommended in 2012 by WHO. This strategy is now implemented widely and protected more than 19 million children in 2018. It was previously reported that exposure to SMC reduced antibody levels to AMA1, MSP-142 and CSP, but the duration of exposure to SMC up to three 3 years, had no effect on antibody levels to MSP-142 and CSP.
Malaria vector control in Mali relies heavily on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in selected districts. As part of strengthening vector control strategies in Koulikoro district, the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) through the support from the US President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) has strategically driven the implementation of IRS, with the LLINs coverage also rising from 93.3% and 98.2%. Due to the increased reports of vector resistance to both pyrethroid and carbamates, there was a campaign for the use of pirimiphos-methyl, an organophosphate at Koulikoro between 2015 and 2016.