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radical cure

Probing the distinct chemosensitivity of Plasmodium vivax liver stage parasites and demonstration of 8-aminoquinoline radical cure activity in vitro

October 13, 2021 - 12:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maher SP, Vantaux A, Kyle DE, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 7;11(1):19905

Improved control of Plasmodium vivax malaria can be achieved with the discovery of new antimalarials with radical cure efficacy, including prevention of relapse caused by hypnozoites residing in the liver of patients. We screened several compound libraries against P. vivax liver stages, including 1565 compounds against mature hypnozoites, resulting in one drug-like and several probe-like hits useful for investigating hypnozoite biology. Primaquine and tafenoquine, administered in combination with chloroquine, are currently the only FDA-approved antimalarials for radical cure, yet their activity against mature P. vivax hypnozoites has not yet been demonstrated in vitro.

Development of weight and age-based dosing of daily primaquine for radical cure of vivax malaria

September 14, 2021 - 14:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Walter Robert Taylor, Richard M. Hoglund, Mavuto Mukaka, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:366 9 September 2021

In many endemic areas, Plasmodium vivax malaria is predominantly a disease of young adults and children. International recommendations for radical cure recommend fixed target doses of 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg/day of primaquine for 14 days in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase normal patients of all ages. However, for many anti-malarial drugs, including primaquine, there is evidence that children have lower exposures than adults for the same weight-adjusted dose. The aim of the study was to develop 14-day weight-based and age-based primaquine regimens against high-frequency relapsing tropical P. vivax.

Safety and Efficacy of Tafenoquine for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Prophylaxis and Radical Cure: Overview and Perspectives

September 14, 2021 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Markus MB
Reference: 
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management,Volume 17

This article is inter alia a brief, first-stop guide to possible adverse events (AEs) associated with tafenoquine (TQ) intake. Safety and efficacy findings for TQ in Plasmodium vivax malaria prophylaxis and radical cure are summarized and some of the latest TQ-related studies (published in 2020 and 2021) are highlighted.

Towards the elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria: Implementing the radical cure

April 28, 2021 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Thriemer K, Ley B, von Seidlein L
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2021 Apr 23;18(4):e1003494

In this review for the Vivax malaria collection, Kamala Thriemer and colleagues explore efforts to eliminate P. vivax malaria.

NOT Open Access | Case Report: Primaquine Failure for Radical Cure of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Gambella, Ethiopia

May 13, 2020 - 14:45 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Teklehaimanot A, Teklehaimanot H, Girmay A, Woyessa A
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 11

Failures of primaquine for the treatment of relapsed Plasmodium vivax malaria is a serious challenge to malaria elimination in Ethiopia, where P. vivax accounts for up to 40% of malaria infections. We report here occurrence of a total of 15 episodes of primaquine treatment failure for radical cure in three historical P. vivax malaria patients from Gambella, Ethiopia, during 8–16 months of follow-up in 1985–1987.

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Gender-Stratified Plasmodium vivax Treatment Strategies Using Available G6PD Diagnostics to Accelerate Access to Radical Cure

May 7, 2020 - 11:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Devine A, Howes RE, Price DJ, Moore KA, Ley B, Simpson JA, Dittrich S, Price RN
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 4

Tafenoquine has been licensed for the single-dose radical cure of Plasmodium vivax in adults; however, it is only recommended in patients with > 70% of normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. Because this may hinder widespread use, we investigated gender-based treatment strategies in which all adult patients are tested with a qualitative G6PD rapid diagnostic test (RDT).

Tafenoquine for the radical cure and prevention of malaria: the importance of testing for G6PD deficiency

February 17, 2020 - 12:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Commons RJ, McCarthy JS, Price RN
Reference: 
Med J Aust. 2020 Feb 9.

The cure of patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria requires killing both the asexual stages of the parasites in the blood as well as the dormant liver stages (hypnozoites) — together known as radical cure. Until recently, primaquine was the only available hypnozoiticidal agent. However, in 2018, the Therapeutic Goods Administration in Australia and the Food and Drug Administration in the United States granted licences for tafenoquine for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria and for malaria chemoprophylaxis.

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