An extract from the bryozoan Amathia lamourouxi with antiplasmodial activity was identified through high-throughput screening of an Australian marine invertebrate extract library against Plasmodium falciparum. Chemical investigation of A. lamourouxi resulted in the isolation of six new brominated alkaloids, convolutamines K and L (1 and 2), volutamides F-H (3-5), and 2,5-dibromo-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (6).
Artemisinin resistance is threatening malaria control. We aimed to develop and test a human model of artemisinin-resistant (ART-R) Plasmodium falciparum to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against ART-R malaria.
To monitor drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax, a multidrug resistance 1 (Pvmdr1) gene and a putative transporter protein (Pvcrt-o) gene were used as molecular markers for chloroquine resistance. The biomarkers, the dihydrofolate reductase (Pvdhfr) gene and the dihydropteroate synthetase (Pvdhps) gene, were also used for the detection of resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP); this drug is often accidentally used to treat P. vivax infections. Clinical blood samples (n = 120) were collected from patients who had been to one of eight malaria-endemic countries and diagnosed with P. vivax infection.