It is well established that infection by Plasmodium vivax is a result of host-parasite interactions. In the present study, association with the IL1/IL2 cytokine profiles, anticircumsporozoite protein antibody levels and parasitic loads was evaluated in individuals naturally infected with P. vivax in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon.
Plasmodium vivax remains an important cause of malaria in South America and Asia, and analyses of the antibody immune response are being used to identify biomarker of parasite exposure. The IgG antibody naturally acquired predominantly occurs against targets on blood-stage parasites, including C-terminal of the merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1-19). Epidemiological and immunological evidence has been showed that antibodies to malaria parasite antigens are lost in the absence of ongoing exposure.
Several refugee settlements in Bangladesh have provided housing and medical care for the forcibly-displaced Myanmar nationals (FDMN, also known as Rohingya) population. The identification of malaria infection status in the refugee settlements is useful in treating infected persons and in developing malaria prevention recommendations. Assays for Plasmodium antigens and human IgG against Plasmodium parasites can be used as indicators to determine malaria infection status and exposure.
The search for novel chemical classes of anti‐malarial compounds to cope with the current state of chemoresistance of malaria parasites, led to the identification of PfA‐M1 as a new therapeutic target. PfA‐M1, known to be involved in the hemoglobin digestion cascade which helps to provide most of the amino acids necessary to the parasite’s metabolism, is currently considered as a promising target for anti‐malarial chemotherapy.